This novel mechanism may apply to other class C, G protein-coupled receptors. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90(suppl):733S-7S.”
“Cellulytic enzymes were used for the isolation and structural characterization of Populus deltoides wood lignin as a fast growing and important species in wood processing technology. The isolation was based on the hydrolysis and partial solubilization of wood
xylan and cellulose using combination of Thricoderma lanuginosus xylanase, Aspergillus sp. plus, A. niger cellulase, and almond glycosidase, followed by lignin purification using Ispinesib supplier Bacillus licheniformis alkaline protease (for hydrolysis of cellulase contamination). The structure of enzymatic
lignin (EL) was elucidated using chemical analysis, Py-GC/MS, FTIR, and quantitative (13)C-NMR techniques. Different lignin structures of acetylated and nonacetylated lignin preparation were calculated. P. deltoides EL has been determined to have an h : g : s ratio of 5 : 60 : 35. Also, P. deltoides EL contained 0.59/Ar of beta-O-4 moieties with small amounts of other structural units such as pino/syringyresinol (0.05/Ar), phenylcoumaran (0.05/Ar), GSK1120212 concentration and spirodienone (0.01/Ar). The degree of condensation was estimated at 20%. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 469-479, 2010″
“Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids ( glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates Dinaciclib clinical trial of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind
the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein-coupled receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR1, and the taste bud-expressed heterodimer T1R1+T1R3. Each of these receptors is expressed in small numbers of cells in anterior and posterior taste buds. The mGluRs are activated by glutamate and certain analogs but are not reported to be sensitive to nucleotides. In contrast, T1R1+T1R3 is activated by a broad range of amino acids and displays a strongly potentiated response in the presence of nucleotides. Mice in which the Grm4 gene is knocked out show a greatly enhanced preference for umami tastants. Loss of the Tas1r1 or Tas1R3 genes is reported to depress but not eliminate neural and behavioral responses to umami. When intact mammalian taste buds are apically stimulated with umami tastants, their functional responses to umami tastants do not fully resemble the responses of a single proposed umami receptor.