Accordingly, in addition to PFOS-related industries, domestic activities may also considerably contribute to the PFOS emissions in the eastern coastal region of China, which has been characterized by high industrial input. In the present study, domestic emissions of PFOS equivalents derived from
municipal wastewater treatment plants were estimated at the county level, using a regression model of domestic emission density with population density and per capita disposable income as independent variables. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from domestic sources in the eastern coastal Caspase inhibitor region of China was 381 kg in 2010, and large cities were prominent as the emission centers. Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor The domestic emission density averaged 0.37 g/km(2).a for the entire study area. Generally, the Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, as the most populous and economically developed areas in China, showed significantly higher emission density. Geographical variations
within individual provinces were noteworthy. The average per capita discharge load of PFOS equivalents arising from domestic activities was 1.91 mu g/day per capita in the eastern coastal region of China, which is consistent with previous estimates in Korea, but lower than those calculated for developed countries. In comparison, the spatial distributions of provincial PFOS emissions from domestic and industrial sources were similar to each other; however, the latter was much larger for all the provinces. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Extracardiac comorbidities are common in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). We sought to evaluate
the relationship between comorbidities and ventricular structure and function in patients with HFPEF through evaluation AZD6094 cost of pressure-volume analysis.
Methods and Results: Two hundred twenty Chinese patients with a preserved ejection fraction who were either healthy (n = 75), hypertensive without heart failure (HTN; n = 89), or hypertensive with HFPEF (HFPEF; n = 56) were studied. Using echocardiographic measures, estimated end-systolic and end-diastolic pressure-volume relationships, and the area between them as a function of EDP, the isovolumic pressure-volume areas (PVA(iso)), were calculated. Ventricular capacitance, as measured by V(30), was larger in patients with HFPEF compared with normal control subjects and tended to be larger compared with hypertensive control subjects. The presence of diabetes and renal insufficiency was independently associated with greater ventricular capacitance in patients with HFPEF. The PVA(iso) was increased in patients with HFPEF compared with HTN and normal control subjects, and in particular, it was increased in HFPEF patients with multiple comorbidities.