(C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All Etomoxir inhibitor rights reserved.”
“A course of one to three large fractions of high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is an attractive alternative to intensity
modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for delivering boost doses to the prostate in combination with additional external beam irradiation for intermediate risk disease. The purpose of this work is to quantitatively compare single-fraction HDR boosts to biologically equivalent fractionated IMRT boosts, assuming idealized image guided delivery (igIMRT) and conventional GW4869 cell line delivery (cIMRT). For nine prostate patients, both seven-field IMRT and HDR boosts were planned. The linear-quadratic model was used to compute biologically equivalent dose prescriptions. The cIMRT plan was evaluated as a static plan and with simulated random and setup errors. The authors conclude that HDR
delivery produces a therapeutic ratio which is significantly better than the conventional IMRT and comparable to or better than the igIMRT delivery. For the HDR, the rectal gBEUD analysis is strongly influenced by high dose DVH tails. A saturation BED, beyond which no further injury can occur, must be assumed. Modeling of organ motion
uncertainties yields mean outcomes similar to static plan outcomes. (C) 2009 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. [DOI: 10.1118/1.3187224]“
“Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is highly prevalent in morbidly obese patients, and a high body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for the development of GERD. However, the mechanism by which the BMI affects esophageal acid exposure DMXAA is not completely understood. Although many advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology of GERD, many aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease in morbidly obese patients remain unclear. The following review describes the current evidence linking esophageal reflux to obesity, covering the pathophysiology of the disease and the implications for treatment of GERD in the obese patient.
On the basis of a WAXS
study, we showed that the linear derivatives are amorphous and that the interdigitation of alkyl chains between neighboring POSS molecules increases as the alkyl chain length increases from propyl to octyl. The thermal behavior of these compounds was studied by DSC, polarized optical microscopy and TGA in nitrogen and air atmosphere. The derivatives with shorter n-alkyl chains from C3 to C6 crystallize below 0 degrees C whereas the derivatives with longer n-alkyl chains (C7 and C8) can be regarded as amorphous glasses with a T(g) around -100 degrees C. The morphology and thermal properties change considerably with branching of the alkyl chain. Melting points above ambient temperature were found for the iso-hexyl and iso-heptyl POSS derivatives whereas the iso-pentyl POSS derivative is liquid at 25 degrees C. From the values of GNS-1480 in vitro the heat of fusion as well as entropy
of fusion, it was concluded that packing of the side groups in the crystal structure increases as the size of the branched alkyl group increases. TGA evidenced a negative effect of the branching of the alkyl chain on the thermal stability in air. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Accumulating evidence suggested that hyperglycemia played a critical role in hippocampus dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the multifactorial pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-induced impairments of hippocampal neurons has not been fully elucidated. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to NCT-501 enhance learning and memory and affect neural function in various experimental
conditions. The present study investigated the effects of DHA on the lipid peroxidation, the level of inflammatory cytokines and neuron apoptosis in the hippocampal neurons in high-glucose condition. High-glucose administration increased the level of tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) and IL-6, induced oxidative Selleck Barasertib stress and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in vitro. DHA treatment reduced oxidative stress and TNF-alpha expression, protected the hippocampal neurons by increasing AKT phosphorylation and decreasing caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression. These results suggested that high-glucose exposure induced injury of hippocampal neurons in vitro, and the principle mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of DHA were its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic potential. DHA may thus be of use in preventing or treating neuron-degeneration resulting from hyperglycemia. (C) 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Macrocycles are ideal in efforts to tackle “difficult” targets, but our understanding of what makes them cell permeable and orally bioavailable is limited.
In this article, we will introduce a new alignment approach (Slider) that reduces the alignment problem space by utilizing each read base’s probabilities
given in the prb Epacadostat clinical trial files.\n\nResults: Compared with other aligners, Slider has higher alignment accuracy and efficiency. In addition, given that Slider matches bases with probabilities other than the most probable, it significantly reduces the percentage of base mismatches. The result is that its SNP predictions are more accurate than other SNP prediction approaches used today that start from the most probable sequence, including those using base quality.”
“We carried out a 16-month in situ study to investigate the ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in coastal sediments of the Mediterranean Sea, employing multiple-regression analysis to reveal the major environmental factors controlling their occurrence in the benthic environment. In addition, association between vibrios and sediment-inhabiting meiofauna, which is a major component of benthic ecosystems,
was investigated. Culturable and total Vibrio spp. estimates by most-probable-number technique coupled with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods, respectively, were at least one order of magnitude higher in sediment than in seawater. In addition, potential human pathogenic species Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in the sediment with V. parahaemolyticus
being the most JQ1 frequently found. In the pelagic environment, 60% of total variance in culturable Vibrio data was explained by sea surface temperature (40%), salinity (13%) and organic matter concentration (7%). In the benthic environment, sea surface temperature was the only factor that significantly affected culturable Vibrio occurrence although it explained only 25% of total variance, suggesting that additional unexplored factors may play a role Gamma-secretase inhibitor as well. No correlation was found between culturable Vibrio spp. concentrations and the abundance of harpacticoid copepods in the sediment whilst a negative correlation was found between Vibrio spp. and nematode abundance which accounted for almost 90% of the total meiofaunal density. Taxonomic analysis revealed that selective bacterial feeders accounted for nearly 50% of the total nematode community and included genera such as Terschellingia, Molgolaimus and Halalaimus, suggesting that top-down control by nematode grazing may be an important factor affecting Vibrio occurrence in these sediments. It is concluded that the benthic marine environment may function as a reservoir of Vibrio spp. and potential pathogenic vibrios whose ecological features appeared substantially different from the ones recognised in the pelagic environment.”
“Methods: The culprit coronary artery was investigated by angioscopy in successive 48 patients (mean +/- SE age, 61.0 +/- 2.
Implications of using the 5HT(1B) receptor as a biomarker for vulnerability to MDD are discussed.”
“Aim: To compare outcomes in patients treated with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) for clinical T1bN0M0 renal masses.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Between 2002 and 2008, 33 and 52 consecutive patients who underwent LPN and LRN, respectively, for clinical stage T1bN0M0 tumors were retrospectively identified from a prospectively maintained database of 450 patients undergoing laparoscopic
renal surgery. Perioperative, pathological, and postoperative outcomes were compared.\n\nResults: The two groups of patients were similar in age, sex, and body-mass index. Mean radiographic tumor size was smaller PHA-739358 cost (4.8 vs. 5.2 cm, p – 0.04) in the LPN group. Mean operative time (228 vs. 175 minutes, p < 0.0001) and mean estimated blood loss PFTα nmr (233 vs. 112 mL, p – 0.003) were higher in the LPN group. Intraoperative complication rates of 15.2% versus 5.7% (p – 0.28) and postoperative complication rates of 24.2% versus 13.5% (p – 0.20) were observed in the LPN and LRN groups, respectively. Overall median follow-up was 15 and 21 months for the LPN and LRN cohorts, respectively. A 12.5% and 29.3% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was observed (p = 0.002), and 30.3% compared
with 55.7% of patients developed an estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl) <60 mL/minutes after treatment (p = 0.04) for LPN and LRN, respectively. There were no differences in pathological stage distribution between the two groups. In the LPN group there were no local or systemic recurrences, and one positive surgical margin was observed. One patient developed metastatic disease in the LRN group.\n\nConclusions: LPN for T-1b renal tumors provides superior intermediate-term preservation of renal function compared with LRN. Continued follow-up of these patients
is required to evaluate oncological outcomes.”
“The Selleck JQ-EZ-05 kinetics of the homogeneous acylation of microcrystalline cellulose, MCC, with carboxylic acid anhydrides with different acyl chain-length (Nc; ethanoic to hexanoic) in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide have been studied by conductivity measurements from 65 to 85 A degrees C. We have employed cyclohexylmethanol, CHM, and trans-1,2-cyclohexanediol, CHD, as model compounds for the hydroxyl groups of the anhydroglucose unit of cellulose. The ratios of rate constants of acylation of primary (CHM; Prim-OH) and secondary (CHD; Sec-OH) groups have been employed, after correction, in order to split the overall rate constants of the reaction of MCC into contributions from the discrete OH groups. For the model compounds, we have found that k((Prim-OH))/k((Sec-OH)) > 1, akin to reactions of cellulose under heterogeneous conditions; this ratio increases as a function of increasing Nc.
\n\nResult: A further insight into the biosorption mechanism of Pt( IV) onto resting cells of Bacillus megatherium D02 biomass on a molecular level has been obtained. The image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the D02 https://www.selleckchem.com/products/loxo-101.html biomass challenged with Pt( IV) displayed a clear distribution of bioreduced platinum particles with sizes of nanometer scale on the biomass. The state of Pt(IV) bioreduced to elemental Pt(0) examined via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that the biomass reduces the Pt(IV) to Pt(II) followed by a slower reduction to Pt(0). The analysis of glucose content in the hydrolysates of D02 biomass for
different time intervals using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry indicated that certain reducing sugars occur in the hydrolyzed biomass and that the hydrolysis of polysaccharides of the biomass is a rapid process. The infrared (IR) spectrometry on D02 biomass and that challenged with Pt(IV), and on glucose and that reacted with Pt(IV) demonstrated that the interaction of the biomass with Pt(IV) seems to be through oxygenous or nitrogenous chemical functional groups on the cell wall biopolymers; that the potential binding sites for Pt species include hydroxyl of saccharides, carboxylate anion and carboxyl of amino acid residues, peptide bond, etc.; and that the free monosaccharic group bearing hemiacetalic hydroxyl from the hydrolyzed biomass
behaving as an electron donor, in situ reduces the Pt(IV) to Pt(0). And moreover, the binding of the Pt(IV) to the oxygen of the carbonyl group of peptide bond caused LBH589 a change in the secondary structure GSK1210151A cost of proteins; i.e. a transformation, in polypeptide chains, of beta-folded to alpha-helical form; it might be expected to be more advantageous than beta-folded form to the platinum nanoparticles under shelter from gathering although the both special conformations of proteins could be much probably responsible
for the stabilization of the particles.\n\nConclusion: That knowledge could serve as a guide in the researches for improving the preparation of highly dispersive supported platinum catalyst and for fabricating new advanced platinum nanostructured devices by biotechnological methods.”
“The American Academy of Pediatrics recently recommended against routine voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs) in children 2 to 24 months with initial febrile UTI, raising concern for delayed diagnosis and increased risk of UTI-related renal damage from vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We assessed factors potentially associated with higher likelihood of abnormal VCUG, including UTI recurrence, which could allow for more judicious test utilization.\n\nWe retrospectively reviewed all initial VCUGs performed at Children’s Hospital of Michigan between January and June, 2010. History of recurrent UTI was ascertained by evidence of two or more prior positive cultures or history of “recurrent UTI” on VCUG requisition.
gallisepticum como fator de risco no peso de lotes de frangos de corte com condenacao por aerossaculite na Inspecao Sanitaria Federal. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 32(7):645-648. Departamento de Saude Coletiva Veterinaria e Saude Publica, Faculdade de Veterinaria, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho64, Vital Brazil, Niteroi, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]\n\nThe Brazilian poultry industry improves annually and is more representative on production and exportation GW4869 manufacturer of their products. Care on poultry health cooperates to these developments, however, respiratory agents that affect weight and carcass quality, continue to threaten poultry production. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and/or partial condemnation of broilers carcasses, being Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) the most important agent of it. This study aimed to detect MG by “Polymerase Chain Reaction” (PCR) and to correlate its positivity with airsacculitis, weight losses
and condemnated broilers by Federal Sanitary Inspection. A total of 40 flocks of slaughter broilers under Federal Inspection in Rio Grande do DMXAA concentration Sul, Brazil, were randomly selected. In each flock three broilers, regardless of sex, were randomly chosen for necropsy where tracheas were collected and polled in one sample for analysis. For PCR, DNA was extracted by the method of phenol-chloroform and amplified with pairs of specific primers for MG. From the 40 flocks PCR analyzed, 20% (8/40) were positive for MG. MG detection was found to be correlected with airsacculitis increase and weight decrease by multiple logistic
regression equation (p<0,05), LogitPi= 7.9409 + (0,5601 x X1) – (3.3080 x X2). Airsacculitis rate increase also correleted with decrease in body weight by simple linear regression equation (p<0.05), Y= 2.1050 – 0.6397X. In conclusion, MG positivity FDA approved Drug Library chemical structure is related to airsacculitis which causes weight loss in broilers. In addition, the PCR was an effective technique for the detection of MG in flocks of broilers, but was not affected by the kind of biological specimens collected, as tracheal scraping or swab.”
“A combination of transmission electron microscopy techniques and spatially resolved microanalysis is used to investigate the nanostructure, constituting phases, and chemical elemental distribution in CrAlYN multilayered coatings. The location of the metallic elements and their chemical state are needed to understand their functional properties. Samples were prepared with variable Al (4-12 at%) and Y (2-5 at%) contents by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates using metallic targets and Ar/N-2 mixtures under different deposition parameters (power applied to the target and rotation speed of the sample holder). The changes produced in the nanostructure and chemical distribution were investigated.
The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women.\n\nMethods: We used Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Bureau claims data in 1999, and cross-checked using criteria set by the American Thoracic Society; there were 33 women with chronic bronchitis, 182 with probable chronic bronchitis, and 205 with no chronic bronchitis
during our interview time between 2000 and 2005. We measured second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by self-reported measures (household users and duration of exposure), and validated this by measuring urinary cotinine levels of a subset subjects. Classification of chronic bronchitis was also based GDC-0068 AG-014699 on spirometry defined according to the GOLD guidelines to get the severity
of COPD.\n\nResults: Women who smoked and women who had been exposed to a lifetime of SHS were 24.81-fold (95% CI: 5.78-106.38) and 3.65-fold (95% CI: 1.19-11.26) more likely to have chronic bronchitis, respectively, than those who had not been exposed to SHS. In addition, there was a significant increasing trend between the severity of COPD and exposure years of SHS (p < 0.01). The population attributable risk percentages of chronic bronchitis for smokers and those exposed to SHS were 23.2 and 47.3% respectively.\n\nConclusions: These findings indicate that, besides cigarette smoking, exposure to SHS is a major risk factor for chronic bronchitis in Taiwanese women.”
“BACKGROUND & AIMS: High serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E often are detected in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), but the clinical significance is not known. METHODS: We analyzed data from 44 patients with PSC and known serum levels of IgE. They were divided into groups called high IgE (> 170 IU/mL; n = 17) or normal IgE (n = 27). We compared occurrence SYN-117 of biliary carcinoma including cholangiocellular and gallbladder carcinoma, liver transplantation, and death between groups. RESULTS: The high IgE group had a later age of onset of PSC than the normal IgE group (54 +/- 20
y vs 39 +/- 16 y; P = .010); they also had a higher serum level of IgG (2078 +/- 638 vs 1517 +/- 475 mg/dL; P = .002) and IgG4 (104 +/- 102 vs 38 +/- 16 mg/dL; P = .002). Association with inflammatory bowel disease did not differ significantly between groups (5 of 17 vs 11 of 27; P = .661). No patient had biliary carcinoma in the high IgE group, but biliary carcinoma was observed during the follow-up period in 8 patients in the normal IgE group (0 of 17 vs 8 of 27; P = .016). The occurrence of biliary carcinoma, liver transplantation, or death did not differ between groups (4 of 17 vs 13 of 27; P = .124). CONCLUSIONS: High serum levels of IgE often are observed in older patients with PSC and are associated with a reduced incidence of biliary carcinoma.
\n\nMethods: A total of 497 articles were identified for review through a PubMed search using the terms “CVD and psoriasis”; 43 were selected. Data measuring the risk of comorbidities GTPL8918 and CV risk factors in psoriasis were retrieved.\n\nResults: Psoriasis patients have an increased prevalence of CV risk factors. Evidence suggests an increased risk of CV morbidity and mortality associated with psoriasis itself.
Risk estimates vary across studies (OR range 1.13-6.48), possibly due to heterogeneous study design and incomplete data.\n\nConclusion: Although additional data are required, increased awareness of the association of psoriasis with CV risk factors could lead to early diagnosis and treatment of comorbidities, with resultant improvement in morbidity and mortality.”
“This study analysed the taxonomic utility of selected features of pollen grains of 45 Central European species of subgenera Vignea and Carex of the genus Carex. Seven quantitative
features were analysed: [length of polar axis (P), length of equatorial axis (E), exine thickness on the pole (Exp), exine thickness on the equator plane (Exe), P/E ratio and the relative thickness of exine (Exp/P and Exe/E ratio)] and outline, shape and exine sculpture. Among the biometrical features, 17-AAG the most important for Carex taxonomy (particularly at the level of subgenus) is the thickness of exine (Exp). Marked differences in the morphological structure of inflorescences at the subgenus level are reflected in the differences of pollen features. Results of our studies clearly show an explicit (and not previously described in the palynological literature) taxonomic division of the genus Carex on the basis of pollen biometrical features into two units corresponding exactly to the subgenera (Vignea and Carex). However, the features of pollen grains analysed did not contribute any essential taxonomic criteria at levels lower than subgenus (e.g. sections). An exception was for C. disticha, where it was observed that the poroid
areas occurred in pairs, a new feature for sedges. (C) 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Compound C research buy Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 164, 422-439.”
“Using transgenic zebrafish (fli1:egfp) that stably express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) within vascular endothelial cells, we recently developed and optimized a 384-well high-content screening (HCS) assay that enables us to screen and identify chemicals affecting cardiovascular development and function at non-teratogenic concentrations. Within this assay, automated image acquisition procedures and custom image analysis protocols are used to quantify body length, heart rate, circulation, pericardial area, and intersegmental vessel area within individual live embryos exposed from 5 to 72 hours post-fertilization. After ranking developmental toxicity data generated from the U.S.
Y179C and p.G396D by allelic discrimination assays using allele-specific TaqManA (R) probes. In all mutation-positive cases, results were confirmed
by sequencing.\n\nBiallelic germline MUTYH mutations were identified in 4 of 60 (6.6%) patients with a phenotype of hereditary colorectal cancer. Germline MUTYH mutation screening should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hereditary colorectal syndromes, and not only in MAP, but also in familial adenomatous polyposis and Bethesda criteria-positive families. Additional mutation screening studies of the MUTYH gene in a larger number of Brazilian patients will be necessary LDN-193189 to confirm these results and determine the validity and applicability of MUTYH mutation screening in our population.”
“Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a relatively rare cutaneous tumor of histiocytic origin, occurring mainly
in neonates, children, and young people in the first 2 decades of life. An occurrence in adults is rare. Very rare is also a “deep” subcutaneous and intramuscular localization of this tumor that is called in such case as “deep juvenile xanthogranuloma.” A very uncommon variant of this tumor is the so-called mitotically active xanthogranuloma, which was described in the literature only in a single case. Nutlin-3a Apoptosis inhibitor We present an interesting case of the mitotically active intramuscular juvenile xanthogranuloma of the upper arm in a 28-year-old woman. Before surgical excision, the tumor was examined by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A diagnosis of deep malignant melanoma or alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was considered. One year after the total excision, the patient is free of disease. In the presented case, we emphasize cytologic-histologic correlation. In the differential diagnosis, we considered especially an atypical diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheaths and joints (extra-articular pigmented villonodular synovitis) and some rare types of soft tissue leiomyosarcoma, such as epitheloid leiomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma with prominent osteoclast-like giant cells. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
here report a case of diabetic ketoacidosis Selleckchem PCI-34051 at onset of type 1 diabetes after a prolonged period of starvation due to anorexia nervosa. A 53-year-old female with a history of anorexia nervosa was admitted to the psychiatric clinic due to psychotic behaviour and inability to take care of herself. Twenty-four hours after admission she was transferred to the clinic of internal medicine due to altered mental status, and laboratory screening revealed a pH of 6.895 and blood glucose concentration of 40 mmol/L. Due to the unusual combination of prolonged starvation and diabetic ketoacidosis we implemented some modifications of existing treatment guidelines and some special considerations regarding nutrition in order to prevent a re-feeding syndrome.
“Background Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for tumour development, progression and metastasis; however, its underlying molecular mechanisms in endometrial carcinoma are poorly understood.\n\nDesign In this study, the mRNA and protein expression profiles of two key regulators of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1), were evaluated by real-time PCR and western blot analysis in 23 endometrial cancer tissue-paired specimens (malignant vs. adjacent normal tissues). We aimed to investigate whether VEGF and TGFB1 serve as markers of the malignant transformation of the endometrium and whether VEGF PXD101 supplier or TGFB1 expression can constitute a useful prognostic
SBE-β-CD concentration marker of survival in patients with endometrial carcinoma.\n\nResults
Tissue-pair analysis revealed VEGF transcriptional up-regulation and TGFB1 mRNA down-regulation as the most frequent transcriptional features. VEGF and TGFB1 mRNA were positively correlated (P < 0.001). VEGF protein levels were higher in endometrioid-type tissue pairs (P = 0.047). TGFB1 protein and mRNA levels were negatively correlated (P = 0.042). TGFB1 protein expression was related to survival only in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma (P = 0.045).\n\nConclusions Tissue-pair mRNA and protein analysis reveals VEGF transcriptional up-regulation and TGFB1 down-regulation that are correlated with the malignant transformation of the endometrium, while post-transcriptional mechanisms control VEGF and TGFB1 protein. TGFB1 protein demonstrated a prognostic value only in endometrioid adenocarcinoma.”
NVP-LDE225 inhibitor In stage III colorectal cancer (CRC), adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) is usually prescribed within two months after curative surgery. Whether or not delaying initiation of CT affects survival is still debated.\n\nMaterial and methods: We performed a meta-analysis (MA) of all published studies (full papers or abstracts) comparing delayed CT with standard care. Studies were obtained from a PubMed query (keywords: CRC, adjuvant treatment, delay of CT), a review (Chau et al., 2006), cross-checking references and abstracts from the proceedings of ASCO, ASCO GI and WCGI annual meetings. We chose a cutoff delay of 8 weeks. Risk Ratios (RRs) were calculated from the recorded events (deaths, relapses). We used EasyMA software (fixed-effect model).\n\nResults: Fourteen studies (including four abstracts) were identified (17,645 patients; 5952 males, 5151 females, mean age 70 years). Of these, three could not be statistically analysed and three used another cutoff (4, 5 or 6 weeks), leaving 8 studies for main MA (13,158 patients; 3932 males, 3644 females, 5942 missing data; 5576 colon cancers, 6677 rectal, 1265 missing data). Delaying CT more than 8 weeks was associated to worse Overall Survival (OS) (RR: 1.20; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.15-1.26).