The meta-analysis of the studies with low mean power did not favo

The meta-analysis of the studies with low mean power did not favour SWD treatment for pain reduction, while the results of studies employing some thermal effect click here were significant. No treatment effect on functional performance measures was determined.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis found small, significant effects on pain and muscle performance only when SWD evoked a local thermal sensation. However, the variability in the treatment protocols makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions

about the factors determining the effectiveness of SWD treatment. More research (using comparable protocols and outcome measurements) is needed to evaluate possible long-term effects of thermal SWD treatment and its cost effectiveness in patients with KOA. (c) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A new glycoside compound (1) was isolated from the starfish Asteria amurensis Lutken. The structure for compound 1 was identified as 1-O–D-quinovopyranosyl-(1-2)–D-fucopyranosyl-(1-4)-[-D-fucopyranosyl(1-2)] for hip and knee total joint arthroplasty (TJA).

Methods: Focus groups were conducted, stratified by history of a previous TJA, in English-speaking men and women aged 40+ years with moderate to severe hip and knee osteoarthritis. Participants discussed: their appropriateness for TJA; the ideal candidate; patients’ role in TJA decision making; and the relationship between appropriateness and willingness

to consider TJA. Participants self-completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, arthritis severity (Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis index – WOMAC), perceived TJA candidacy and willingness to consider TJA. Focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was performed.

Results: Eleven focus groups were conducted with 58 participants in total: mean age 72 years; 79% female; 25 (43%) with prior TJA; mean WOMAC summary score 43.1. Half reported willingness to consider TJA and 43% felt they were appropriate for TJA. Appropriateness was equated with candidacy for the procedure. Pain intensity and the ability to cope with pain were identified as the most important factors determining surgical candidacy, but felt to be inadequately evaluated by physicians. TJA appropriateness and willingness were felt to be distinct, yet related, concepts; those unwilling had stricter criteria about candidacy than those who were willing.

Conclusions: Participants equated appropriateness for TJA with surgical candidacy.

7% In 23 4% of cases, more precise anatomic information was foun

7%. In 23.4% of cases, more precise anatomic information was found that was subjectively deemed clinically meaningful. Conclusions: Our snapshot of 200 consecutive catheter cerebral angiograms shows that it is used for both primary

diagnosis and surveillance in a wide variety of indications. Despite recent imaging trends, diagnostic catheter angiography provides clinically meaningful diagnostic information in enough cases to warrant continued use.”
“In this review, we check details identify and discuss some of the genomics studies of preconditioning and the ischemic tolerance phenomenon. Such studies have been attempted in multiple species, using different array technologies and with different preconditioning and tolerance models. In addition, studies are starting to reveal epigenetic mechanisms and modifiers of tolerance ERK pathway inhibitor and preconditioning. Together these studies are starting to reveal some of the immense complexity of the ischemic tolerance phenomenon, yet further studies await to be performed.”
“Aim: We sought to investigate protein biomarkers for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in vaginal tissues using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and examine if this is a reliable methodology to examine proteins in small tissue specimens.

Material and Methods: We compared protein expression profile of vaginal tissue from women with SUI

and continent controls. A 22.6 kDa peak was identified by subsequent weak cation-exchange, reverse-phase fractionation, gel electrophoresis, and trypsin digestion, then analyzed by matrix assisted selleck screening library laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and MALDI MS-MS. Biomarker identity and expression level were confirmed by Western-blotting and immunohistochemistry.

Results: Expression of the 22.6 kDa protein, identified as SM-22 alpha, was significantly higher in women with SUI versus controls. A 3×3-mm tissue sample was sufficient for identification. Western-blot/immunohistochemistry confirmed the SELDI-TOS MS findings.

Conclusion: SM-22 alpha, a marker for myofibroblasts, was identified as a biomarker of SUI. Differential protein profiling by SELDI-TOF MS

is a powerful and reliable tool for urogynecological research as it allows us to study an array of proteins simultaneously using small tissue samples.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of Elaeis guineensis leaf against Staphylococcus aureus and to determine the effect of extract treatment on the microstructure of the microbe

Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the methanol leaf extract of the plant against S. aureus was examined using disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of S. aureus after treatment with the extract.

Results: The extract showed a good antimicrobial activity against S.

The estimated risk of epidural haematoma is 1 :12 000 (95% confid

The estimated risk of epidural haematoma is 1 :12 000 (95% confidence interval of 1 : 2100 to 1 : 68000), which is comparable to noncardiac surgery. The fear of an increased risk of epidural haematoma associated with cardiopulmonary bypass has not eventuated. Improved analgesia, reduced pulmonary complications and reduced atrial fibrillation in off-pump coronary surgery check details have been reported. There are some case series and numerous case reports of

awake cardiac surgery performed under epidural anaesthesia. This review will focus on safety, benefits and the logistics of performing epidural anaesthesia for cardiac surgery.

Summary

Fear of an increased risk of epidural haematoma has largely prevented increased use of this technique for cardiac surgery. Clinicians can be reassured that the risk of epidural use in cardiac surgery is similar to that for noncardiac surgery, which provides a new platform for considering risk GSK690693 order versus benefit in their practice.”
“Study Design. An in vivo study to develop a goat large-animal model for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration.

Objective. To determine an optimal method for inducing goat IVD degeneration suitable for testing disc regeneration therapies.

Summary of Background Data. Although rodent, rabbit, and other small animal studies are useful, the narrow dimensions

of IVDs in these species limit studies requiring injection of a relevant volume of therapeutics or implantation of engineered tissue constructs. For this study, the goat was selected because the size and shape of their IVDs are comparable with those of adult humans.

Methods. A minimally invasive approach that did not cause significant morbidity or mortality to adult goats (n = 6) was used. Under fluoroscopic guidance, goat lumbar IVDs were injured LY2090314 manufacturer with a 4.5-mm drill bit or #15 or #10 surgical blades. Two months postinjury, the goats were killed and their IVDs with adjacent end plates were isolated, decalcified, and stained.

Results. A numerical histologic scale to categorize the degree of goat IVD degeneration was developed on the basis

of the histologic features of rabbit IVDs previously described by Masuda et al, goat IVDs described by Hoogendoorn et al, and human IVDs described by Boos et al. The interrater agreement of our scoring system was assessed (weighted kappa value = 0.6646). Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the injured IVDs with uninjured control. A 4.5-mm drill bit inserted to a 15-mm depth resulted in a significantly higher histologic score than uninjured controls (P = 0.01). Injury with a #15 or #10 blade did not result in increased histologic scores compared with uninjured controls.

Conclusion. A comparison of the various injuries inflicted showed that the use of a 4.5-mm drill bit resulted in the most significant histologic changes.

In a population-based sample of 12- to 19-year-olds, 350 patients

In a population-based sample of 12- to 19-year-olds, 350 patients with self-reported TMD pain and 350 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were mailed questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, 95% CI, and OR analyseslogistic

regression models with TMD pain as the outcome variable and adjusted for age and genderwere used for the analysis of individuals’ responses. Headache, whether defined as once a week or more (OR = 6.6) or as moderate or severe (categorical), was significantly related to TMD pain. Severe headache (vs. mild) NSC 697286 showed stronger associations with TMD (OR = 10.1) than between moderate and mild headache (OR = 5.5). Neck (OR = 4.0) and back (OR = 2.6) pain was also significantly related to TMD pain. When participants were grouped according to headache onset and TMD pain, the highest association between headache and TMD pain was found in the subgroup Headache onset before TMD pain (OR 9.4). In conclusion,

headache appears to be independently and highly associated with TMD pain in adolescents. Neck pain and somatic complaints were also significantly associated with TMD pain. Headache seems to precede TMD pain in many adolescents selleck chemicals with pain.”
“There has recently been constant effort to evaluate therapies that may have a positive effect on bone regeneration. However, there are few studies in the literature on the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) involving tissues treated with anabolic steroids. The present study evaluated the effects of LLLT (AsGaAl 780 nm, 3 J/cm(2), 10 mW, beam spot of 0.04 cm(2), total energy 0.12 J) on the proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation of osteoblasts cultured in the presence of nandrolone decanoate (ND). The MTT method was employed to evaluate cell proliferation and adhesion. Cell differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. There was a significant decrease in cell proliferation in the irradiated

group treated with 50 mu M ND when compared to the control group, after 48 h. After 72 h, cell proliferation was significantly greater in the control group than in the irradiated groups treated with the steroid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 mu M. With regard to cell differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the irradiated group treated GSK2118436 molecular weight with 50 mu M ND than in the control group, irradiated non-treated group, and irradiated group treated with 25 mu M ND. After 60 min of plating, the irradiated non-treated group and irradiated groups treated with the steroid at concentrations of 5, 10, and 25 mu M exhibited a significant increase in cell adhesion compared to the control group. LLLT in combination with a high concentration of steroid inhibited cell proliferation, possibly by inducing cell differentiation, while irradiation combined with lower concentrations of the steroid induced an increase in cell adhesion.

49 +/- 0 59 mu g/mL (single, 100 mg doxycycline), 4 20 +/- 1 34 m

49 +/- 0.59 mu g/mL (single, 100 mg doxycycline), 4.20 +/- 1.34 mu g/mL (single, 200 mg doxycycline),

6.69 +/- 1.26 mu g/mL (single-dose, 300 mg doxycycline) and 3.05 +/- 0.92 mu g/mL (multiple-dose, 100 mg doxycycline). The median T(max) (2 h of infusion Included) was 2.00 +/- 0.19 h, 1.93 +/- 0.23 h, and Autophagy Compound Library 1.98 +/- 0.18 h for single dose of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg doxycycline and 2.11 +/- 0.17 h for multiple dose of 100 mg doxycycline, respectively. Plasma elimination half-lives (t(1/2)) were 14.00 +/- 5.88 h, 14.20 +/- 8.11 h, 16.66 +/- 7.12 h and 14.03 +/- 3.50 h, areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) were 21.85 +/- 6.37 mu g.h/mL, 52.02 +/- 15.26 mu g.h/mL, 84.86 +/- 23.03 mu g.h/mL and 34.64 +/- 5.89 mu g.h/mL, AUC(0-48) were 19.75 +/- 6.60 mu g.h/mL, 46.13 PRIMA-1MET +/- 12.21 mu g.h/mL, 75.57 +/- 20.31 mu g.h/mL and 32.03 +/- 5.70 mu g.h/mL, for single dose of 100, 200, 300 mg doxycyctine and multiple dose of 100 mg doxycycline, respectively. AUC In the single-dose study were dose proportional, doxycycline hydrochloride showed first order kinetics in the range of 100-300 mg. The plasma concentration

of doxycycline hydrochloride has been sustained at a certain effective level after multiple-dose treatment, and the elimination process was similar to that after the single dose. Gender differences were also observed.”
“Purpose Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PG) are evaluated and treated similarly. This study evaluates the hypothesis that tumor characteristics and outcome of patients with PCC and PG are equivalent.

Methods Records of patients from a single institution undergoing resection of PCC or PG from 1999 to 2010 were reviewed. Data were collected for demographics, operative records, laboratory and pathologic results, adjuvant and

palliative therapy given, recurrence, and length of survival. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences AC220 ic50 between patients with benign and malignant PCC and PG. Analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test with p = 0.05 considered as significant.

Results One hundred fifteen patients were identified (106 PCC and nine PG). Of the tumors, 5.2% were bilateral and 10.4% were malignant. Forty-three of the 115 patients underwent genetic testing; 21out of 37 (56.8%) PCC and five out of six (83.3%) PG had a genetic mutation. Twelve patients (seven PCC and five PG) had malignant tumors. Malignant PG (mPG) exhibited more invasive pathologic characteristics. The median sizes of benign and malignant PCC (mPCC) were 4.0 (0.7-14 cm) and 5.5 cm (3.7-11.2 cm), respectively, p = 0.03. The median sizes of benign and mPG were 4.1 (2.7-5.4 cm) and 5.8 cm (4-6.2 cm), respectively, p = 0.11. Sites of recurrence were similar between the groups. Patients with mPG received chemotherapy more often than those with mPCC. With a median follow-up of 54.7 months (2.0-185.


“Background: Adult survivors of childhood cancer adhere po


“Background: Adult survivors of childhood cancer adhere poorly to recommended medical surveillance. We sought to identify modifiable factors that contribute to non-adherence.

Methods: Latent class LY2090314 clinical trial analysis categorized survivors (ages 18-52years) at risk of cardiac, breast, or bone late sequelae on the basis of their health-related concerns, fears, and motivation. These classifications were compared at two time points for self-reported adherence to recommended

echocardiography, mammography, and bone densitometry screening.

Results: Three classes (worried, collaborative, and self-controlling) characterized survivors in each of the three risk groups: cardiac (N=564; Bayesian information criterion [BIC]=10,824.66; Lo-Mendell-Rubin parametric likelihood

ratio test [LRMLRT] P=.002), breast (N=584; BIC=11,779.97; LRMLRT P<.001), and bone (N=613; BIC=11,773.56; LMRLRT P=.028). Only 9% of at-risk survivors in the self-controlling class reported undergoing bone density screening in 2005, compared with 17.2% in the collaborative class (P=.034). Thirteen percent of the self-controlling, 24% of collaborative (P=.025), and 34% of worried (P=.010) classes reported undergoing bone densitometry in 2009. Whereas 73% of at-risk survivors in the worried class reported having had an echocardiogram in 2009, only 57% of the collaborative (P=.040) and 43% of self-controlling (P<.001) classes did. In 2005 and 2009, respectively, fewer survivors in the

self-controlling class (37% and 53%) than in the collaborative Nutlin-3 inhibitor (51%, P=.038 and 70%, P=.01) and worried (58%, P=.002 and 69%, P=.025) classes selleckchem reported undergoing mammograms.

Conclusions: Modifiable intrapersonal characteristics associated with these three classes predict self-reported participation in medical surveillance. Continued observation and validation of these survivor profiles may inform tailored interventions to enhance survivors’ screening participation. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Introduction and objectives. Patients with chronic bifascicular block (BFB) can progress to advanced atrioventricular block (AVB), especially when syncope or a prolonged HV interval is present. It is possible that other variables could help identify patients who would benefit from prophylactic pacemaker implantation.

Methods. The study involved 263 consecutive BFB patients seen at a single center between 1998 and 2006. Clinical, electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic variables were analyzed to identify predictors of progression to significant AVB (i.e. second or third grade). Cardiac pacemakers were implanted in accordance with European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Pacemakers were programmed in the VVI mode with a minimum frequency of 40 beats/min. A pacemaker was required if there was significant AVB or a ventricular pacing percentage >10%.

Results.

Results show that BDM/DBA/HBPPO and BDM/DBA resins have similar c

Results show that BDM/DBA/HBPPO and BDM/DBA resins have similar curing mechanism, but the former can be cured at lower temperature than the later; in addition, cured BDM/DBA/HBPPO resin with suitable HBPPO content has better thermal stability and dielectric properties (lower dielectric constant and loss) than BDM/DBA resin. The difference in macroproperties between BDM/DBA/HBPPO and BDM/DBA resins results from the

3-Methyladenine research buy different chemical structures and morphologies of their crosslinking networks. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 451-457, 2011″
“When going ‘beyond the patient’, to measure QALYs for unpaid carers, a number of additional methodological considerations and value judgements must be made. While there is no theoretical reason to restrict the measurement of QALYs to patients, decisions have to be made about which carers to consider, what instruments to use and how to aggregate and present QALYs for carers and patients. Current, albeit limited, practice in measuring

QALY gains to carers in economic evaluation varies, suggesting that there may be inconsistency in judgements about whether interventions are deemed cost effective.

While conventional health-related quality-of-life tools can, in theory, be used to estimate QALYs, there are both theoretical and empirical concerns over the SCH772984 suitability of their use with carers. Measures that take a broader view of health or well-being may be more appropriate. Incorporating QALYs of carers in economic evaluations may have important distributional consequences

and, therefore, greater normative discussion over the appropriateness of incorporating these impacts is required. In the longer term, more flexible forms of cost-per-QALY analysis may be required to take account of the broader impacts on S63845 purchase carers and the weight these impacts should receive in decision making.”
“A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or mono-unsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol.

Results : All ovaries of ER alpha KO mice were larger than contro

Results : All ovaries of ER alpha KO mice were larger than control mouse ovaries and displayed a disrupted theca-interstitial tissue organization, multiple atretic follicles and multiple hemorrhagic cysts. None of the ER alpha KO mouse ovaries showed a corpus luteum. In Selleck Proteasome inhibitor addition, heavy deposition of Sudan black-B positive foamy cells was seen. The theca externa of preantral immature follicles and hemorrhagic cysts showed strong expression of alpha-SMA. Conclusions : ER alpha KO mice show hemorrhagic polycystic ovaries and hyperplasia of the theca externa. This study demonstrates that the ER alpha is the functional key to the pathogenesis of PCOS.”
“In

adults elevated transaminases and hepatomegaly often mild with moderate to massive idiopathic splenomegaly might hint to a lysosomal JPH203 research buy storage disease (LSD) In most of these cases hepatosplenomegaly does not eventually lead to cirrhosis hepatocellular carcinoma or cholestasis Nevertheless the hepatic clinical findings might be the incentive for the patient to present at the physician s

office Many of the currently known > 50 lysosomal storage diseases might manifest in liver out of these the most important ones in adults are Gaucher disease cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD) and the Niemann-Pick diseases An increase of plasma chitotriosidase [1-4] should alert the physician for the presence of an LSD For Gaucher s disease enzyme supplementation and substrate deprivation constitute effective therapeutic options Fabry s disease the most prevalent lysosomal storage disease does usually not affect the liver but causes painful episodes of hands or feet pain (acroparesthesias) left ventricular hypertrophy renal failure early stroke and decreased life expectancy The emerging advent JAK inhibitor of effective therapeutic options and the cumulative prevalence of lysosomal storage diseases urge the hepatologist to add these diagnostic pathways to the clinical repertoire (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“No

official document has been published for primary care physicians regarding the management of liver transplant patients. With no official source of reference, primary care physicians often question their care of these patients. The following guidelines have been approved by the American Society of Transplantation and represent the position of the association. The data presented are based on formal review and analysis of published literature in the field and the clinical experience of the authors. These guidelines address drug interactions and side effects of immunosuppressive agents, allograft dysfunction, renal dysfunction, metabolic disorders, preventive medicine, malignancies, disability and productivity in the workforce, issues specific to pregnancy and sexual function, and pediatric patient concerns.

Although there are no specific features on imaging, mixed solid a

Although there are no specific features on imaging, mixed solid and cystic morphology, fat signal and areas of calcification are helpful in the pre-operative diagnosis. Most of these lesions are diagnosed on histopathological examination after surgery and therefore thorough sampling and serial sectioning are mandatory to identify all components of the teratoma in order to avoid

misdiagnosis.”
“It has been shown that low-level preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAbs) detected by luminex beads in the setting of a negative CDC and flow cytometry crossmatch (CDC/FCXM) are associated with inferior allograft outcomes. selleck products The relevance of preformed DSAbs in patients receiving alemtuzumab induction ALK targets and tacrolimus monotherapy has not been studied. Four hundred and eighty renal transplant recipients with a negative CDC/FCXM had their pretransplant sera retrospectively screened for DSAbs. 45/480 (9.4%) of patients were found to have preformed DSAbs. Females and patients receiving regrafts were more likely to have a DSAb (p =

0.008 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Patients with DSAbs had inferior allograft survival (p = 0.047), increased incidence of antibody-mediated rejection (p < 0.0001) and inferior allograft function at 6 months posttransplant (p = 0.017). Patients with HLA class I DSAb (alone or in combination with a Class II DSAb) with high mean fluorescence intensities (MFIs) were at highest risk. We conclude that patients with preformed DSAb are at high risk of adverse outcomes when receiving a minimal immunosuppressive

regime incorporating www.selleckchem.com/p38-MAPK.html alemtuzumab induction. Patients found to have a preformed DSAb despite a negative crossmatch might benefit from augmented immunosuppression.”
“Study Design. To detect drug concentration levels and metabolite using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Objective. To map concentration levels of three antituberculous drugs and two metabolites in the abnormal osseous tissues around the foci of patients with spinal tuberculosis.

Summary of Background Data. Concentration levels of antituberculous drugs in the focus of spinal tuberculosis has been reported. However, the mapping of drugs distribution in different regions surrounding the foci of tuberculosis vertebrae remains unexplored, as well as the metabolite of the drugs.

Methods. Thirty-eight patients with spinal tuberculosis were assigned into sclerotic group (n = 13) and nonsclerotic group (n = 25) based on computed tomographic (CT) images. All patients received a chemotherapy 10 months with 2HRZE/8H(2)R(2)E(2). All patients received surgery after 4 weeks of chemotherapy. Samples of serum, ilium, and pathologic vertebral tissues, including the foci, sclerotic wall (if applicable), region I of abnormal osseous tissues (within 4 mm), and region II of abnormal osseous tissues (more than 4 mm) from the foci were collected during operation.

EGTA had no effect on SOD activity of the mucosa whereas 1 and 5

EGTA had no effect on SOD activity of the mucosa whereas 1 and 5 mm calcium decreased SOD activity of the muscle. Catalase: 1 mm calcium resulted in decreased catalase activity of the muscle and no change in the activity of the mucosa, whereas 5 mm calcium resulted in increased catalase activity of the mucosa but no change in the activity of the muscle. Discussion: Mucosa showed more SOD and catalase activity than the muscle. Both SOD and catalase showed differing sensitivities to EGTA and calcium. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Purpose: To prospectively investigate and monitor

the response to antiandrogen RG-7112 datasheet treatment of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer by using diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and functional diffusion maps (DMs).

Materials and Methods: This study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was obtained from all patients. Nine treatment-naive men (mean age, 73 years; range, 66-86 years) with 20 pelvic bone metastases were included. Imaging was performed before antiandrogen treatment and at 1, 2, and 3 months afterward. Imaging included a DW MR imaging sequence with five b factors

(0-800 sec/mm(2)). Serum prostate-specific Adavosertib antigen (PSA) levels and mean ADCs of each metastasis were measured over time and analyzed by using the general linear model. Pairwise comparisons (paired-samples t tests) of PSA levels and ADCs before and after therapy were performed with the significance level set at GSK461364 inhibitor P < .017 (Bonferroni correction). To determine the relationship between serum PSA level and the averaged mean ADCs in each patient, the two parameters were correlated across time. In addition, an analysis with functional DMs was performed to evaluate ADC response to treatment on a per-voxel basis.

Results: Serum PSA levels decreased by more than 90% during therapy. The mean

ADCs of metastases were increased significantly at 1 (P < .001), 2 (P = .002), and 3 (P = .011) months after therapy compared with pretreatment values. Heterogeneous response was revealed at functional DM analysis. After 1 month of therapy, 47.3% of all analyzed tumor voxels showed significantly increased ADCs, while 46.5% were unchanged and 6.2% exhibited decreased ADCs in comparison to the pretreatment values. At 3 months after therapy, the proportion of voxels showing ADC decrease was higher (13.7%) than that at 1 month.

Conclusion: DW MR imaging allows monitoring of antiandrogen therapy in bone metastases. PSA level decrease corresponded well with an increase in mean tumor ADC. Heterogeneity of tumor response to therapy was demonstrated by functional DM analysis. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Recent large-scale genomic profiling studies of glioma have yielded a proliferation of candidate subclasses, biomarkers and therapeutic targets for investigation.