Animals-4,620 horses on 500 farms.
Procedures-A questionnaire was structured and mailed to farm owners or managers to obtain information related to diagnosis of anhidrosis in horses and exposure factors associated with this condition. The frequency of investigated farm- and animal-level factors was compared between farms and horses affected and not affected with anhidrosis, respectively.
Results-The prevalence of anhidrosis was 11% at the farm level and 2% at the animal level. The odds of anhidrosis were 2.13 and 4.40 times
as high in farms located in central and southern Florida, respectively, compared with odds for farms in northern Florida. The odds of anhidrosis were 5.26 and 15.40 times OSI-906 in vitro as high in show and riding instruction operations, respectively, compared with odds for ranch operations. At the animal level, breed (Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses), foaling place (western or midwestern region of the United States), and family history of anhidrosis were significantly associated with anhidrosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-This study provides new information on the prevalence of and factors for anhidrosis in horses in Florida. Horses with a family history of anhidrosis should be examined by a veterinarian for diagnosis of this condition before they are exposed to exercise in a hot and humid climate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;236:1091-1097)”
“Purpose of review
To provide an overview of the mechanisms
of autoimmunity associated with Birinapant primary immunodeficiencies.
Over the past several years, new concepts of the relationship between primary immunodeficiencies and autoimmunity have developed that promise to illuminate the mechanisms by which alterations in the same gene may alternately, or sometimes concomitantly, lead to increased susceptibility to infection and loss of self-tolerance. A common pathway in the process leading to autoimmunity involves gene defects that permit effector T-cell development in the absence of sufficient regulatory T-cell function. Conversely, MLN2238 gene defects that primarily
lead to autoimmunity may impair host defense by neutralizing key elements of immunity. The production of neutralizing antibodies against cytokines comprises a newly recognized mechanism in which autoimmunity may lead to immunodeficiency.
Autoimmunity has long been known to be a part of the presenting symptoms and clinical course of many primary immunodeficiencies. This review will provide an overview of the new concepts regarding the complex relationship between the genetic immune deficiencies and autoimmunity. The mechanisms by which immunodeficiency may lead to autoimmunity or, in some instances, by which autoimmunity produces immunodeficiency can provide important insights into the underlying pathogenic processes and ultimately better diagnosis and treatment for the patient.”
“Objective-To compare the effects of IV administration of isotonic (1.3%) and hypertonic (8.