4). Primer extension of mRNA isolated from strain 8013 grown in broth and harvested after adhesion to HUVECs revealed one major mRNA end-point (Fig. 5). Transcription was initiated at the residue G located 55 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon of NMA1803 and separated from the putative −10 box (TATTA) by nine nucleotides (Fig.
5). This finding confirms that NMA1805 displays two promoters: one located in the REP2 sequence and one present in the 5′ end of NMA1803. We also investigated whether NMA1805 bound to one of the four pilC1 promoters (Fig. 1a). None of them were shown to interact with protein NMA1805. BIRB 796 research buy In this work, we explored the regulation of the N. meningitidis pilC1 gene. We identified the protein NMA1805 as a novel regulator involved in
the transcriptional control of pilC1. Perception and response to environmental stimuli are frequently mediated by TCSs (García Véscovi et al., 1996; Beier & Gross, 2006). Classical TCSs consist of a membrane-bound sensor kinase and a cytoplasmic response regulator. The sensor is autophosphorylated in response to an environmental signal. Then, the transfer of the phosphoryl group to the response regulator results in modification of gene expression. Indeed, NMA1805 is annotated as a putative regulatory protein of the NMA1803/1805 putative two-component system (Vallenet et al., 2006). However, NMA1803 has recently been annotated as a nonfunctional truncated sensor (Snyder et al., 2005). Therefore, NMA1805 Morin Hydrate cannot function as a part of this TCS, but can check details still act as a transcription factor because it retains a helix-turn-helix motif allowing DNA binding. Moreover, in this work, we demonstrate a role for NMA1805 in pilC1 regulation. Many other orphan regulators, i.e. without a cognate sensor, have been described previously such as PmrA in Francisella
novicida (Mohapatra et al., 2007) and DegU in Listeria monocytogenes (Gueriri et al., 2008); both are required for bacterial virulence. The absence of a cognate sensor raises the question of signal perception. NMA1805 belongs to the REP2 regulon, and as a corollary, is regulated by the two-component system MisR/S (Jamet et al., 2009). We hypothesized that the operonic organization, under the control of the REP2 promoter, has eliminated the need for NMA1805 to be activated through the perception of a signal by a cognate sensor. Both pilC1 and NMA1805 belong to the REP2 regulon. During the early interaction with host cells, both genes are induced and then NMA1805 is able to induce its own transcription with binding to its own promoter. This work, together with our previous findings, demonstrates that NMA1805 and MisR are necessary to induce pilC1 upregulation upon contact with host cells. Because NMA1805 does not bind to the pilC1 promoters, the precise regulation pathway and the potential collaboration of proteins MisR and NMA1805 are still to be elucidated.