1D). In addition, the adventitious root induction rate of CS was 9% higher than that of CP (Fig. 1E). ABT-888 in vivo This indicates that CS is better suited for adventitious root induction and growth under these conditions. We generated a total of 90,242,024 and 82,011,294 raw reads from CP and CS, respectively (Table 1). After trimming the low-quality reads with Phred quality scores of ≤25 and removing primer/adaptor sequences, we obtained 85,335,736 (94.5%) and 77,583,736 (94.6%) high-quality reads, with an average read length of 99 bp, in CP and CS, respectively
(Table 1). To obtain high-quality assemblies, we tested several algorithms for de novo assembly with different options. We used several criteria to determine the desirable assembly: number of reads used in the assembly, total length of transcriptome, average contig length, N50, and annotation by BLASTX against the TAIR protein database. Using Velvet followed by Oases, we compared assembly results with randomly selected k-mer lengths of 31, 39, 41, 49, 51, 59, 61, 69, 71, and 79. The best assembly was obtained at k = 69, as it resulted in the highest total length (∼138 Mbp), the largest N50 length (1,092 bp), the largest average
contig length (19,999 bp), and a significant number of TAIR hits (74.79%). In addition to Oases assembly, we also used Trinity (k = 25 as a fixed option), SOAP-Trans, ABySS, and the CLC Genomics Workbench CH5424802 purchase with default parameters. We also compared
the assembly aminophylline results by mapping all raw reads onto each assembly, in order to determine the read usage. We obtained the best assembly results from Oases and Trinity, as they showed the largest assembled transcriptome sizes, numbers of mapped reads, average contig lengths, and numbers of TAIR hits (BLASTX; data not shown). For further evaluation of the accuracy of the datasets, we compared both against P. ginseng full-length gene sequences retrieved from GenBank. Large numbers of full-length sequences (including untranslated regions) were found in the Trinity dataset, with 95–100% identity. We found that many truncated transcripts (without the start and stop codons) were included in the Oases dataset. The extracted dataset sequences were also mapped successfully onto our ongoing P. ginseng draft genome sequence assembly using the BLAST algorithm. The Trinity dataset showed more hits and a higher percentage of identity than the Oases dataset, demonstrating that Trinity was the best assembler for our transcriptome assembly. Using Trinity, we obtained 35,527 CP transcripts with an average length of 1,978 bp and 27,716 CS transcripts with an average length of 1,980 bp (Table 1). The lengths of the assembled transcripts ranged from 400 bp to 15,980 bp, with a large number of transcripts in the range of 1,000–2,000 bp in CP as well as in CS.