Z xanthoxyloides and Z leprieurii showed a similar composition,

Z. xanthoxyloides and Z. leprieurii showed a similar composition, with a prevalence of oxygenated monoterpenes (about 58%). The EO of Z. xanthoxyloides was the most effective against the microorganisms tested. Its higher concentration of geraniol could be linked to this higher activity. In almost all cases, the MBC was higher than the maximum concentration tested (3000 ppm). Notwithstanding their low bactericidal effect, the EOs studied showed interesting inhibiting activities against

the tested food borne pathogens. S. enteritidis was the most resistant to the BGJ398 in vivo bacteriostatic effect of the four EOs. The knowledge of the antimicrobial potential of local plant EOs used in developing countries could help in their choice and their use to improve food safety and shelf-life.”
“Studies confirming a possible relationship of polymyositis within thyroid PI3K inhibitor dysfunction, either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, are hardly available. To define the association, identify clinical, laboratory, electromyographic, and pathologic features in polymyositis (PM) patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism,

we conducted a MEDLINE and Chinese biomedicine database search to identify relevant literature published in the past 25 years. Seventeen cases were included. All patients were female (10 hypothyroidism patients, seven hyperthyroidism patients). The mean (SD) age of PM, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism at diagnosis was 54.8 (16.7), 55.5 (16.5), and 32.7 years (10.2), respectively. PM diagnosis can precede or parallel hypothyroidism while PM may occur following GSK690693 inhibitor the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. The most common comorbidities were malignant tumors in these disorders, including thymoma, colon cancer, and thyroid cancer. Muscle weakness was described in 100% of patients. Other common manifestations included muscles’ atrophy and pain, deep tendon reflexes, polyarthralgia, and dysphagia. Most patients had markedly elevated creatine kinase and the presence of anti-Sjogren’s syndrome A (SSA) antibodies was

also found in two cases. Malignancy associated with PM may more frequently occur in hypothyroidism than in hyperthyroidism. The abnormalities on electromyography and biopsy did not differ from those findings of PM. Therapy consisting of corticosteroids, thyroid hormone, or anti-thyroid drugs was administrated; however, poor prognosis seemed to be associated with malignant tumors as well as older age and the presence of anti-SSA antibodies. It is reasonable to suggest that those patients should be routinely evaluated for thyroid function, especially in older female and patients suffering from cancers.”
“Objective: To compare the effect of fluctuating glucose with sustained hyperglycaemia on systemic oxidative stress during 72 h of glucose infusion.

The animals underwent 30 min of left anterior descending artery o

The animals underwent 30 min of left anterior descending artery occlusion and subsequent reperfusion for 120 min.

Results: Myocardial infarct size (IS) was reduced in R-1W (28.4 +/- 6.3%, p < 0.001), R-4W (27.8 +/- 7.4, p < 0.001), L-4W

(31.8 +/- 6%, p < 0.05) and L-10W (25.3 +/- 5.7, p < 0.001) groups compared Selleck Saracatinib with a saline group (48.3 +/- 7.8%). A significant reduction in the number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs) was noted in groups R-1W (209 +/- 41, p < 0.01), R-4W (176 +/- 39, p < 0.01), L-4W (215 +/- 52, p < 0.05) and L-10W (191 +/- 61, p < 0.01 vs. saline 329 +/- 48). The incidence of irreversible ventricular fibrillation (VF) and mortality were decreased significantly only in L-10W group.

There were no significant decreases in episodes of VT, the incidence of irreversible VF and mortality in all of the groups treated with ramiprilat.

Conclusion: These data indicate that losartan and ramiprilat protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury independently of their hemodynamic effects but in a time-dependent manner.”
“Objective: To review the presentation and evaluation

of laryngotracheoesophageal clefts as well as their treatment modalities, especially endoscopic closure.

Study design: retrospective case series.

Methods: All patients treated for laryngotracheoesophageal clefts in our clinic during the last 15 years were included. Analysis of preoperative 查看更多 data, surgical success and functional outcome was performed.

Results: A total of 18 patients were included in our study. Cleft distribution was: type I (n=1), Selleck MLN0128 type II (n=3), type IIIa (n=5), type IIIb (n=8) and type IVa (n=1). All clefts were closed endoscopically by CO2 laser repair except for two patients who benfited from open surgery (one type I, one type IIIb). 7 of our 18 patients (39%)

experienced a complication necessitating reoperation. Surgical treatment of LTEC allowed cessation of feeding tube assistance and artificial ventilation in 47% and 42% of patients respectively.

Conclusion: Surgical treatement of laryngotracheoesophageal clefts remains a complex procedure with a high rate of morbidity for high grade clefts. Post-surgical difficulties in feeding and breathing are associated with concomitant congenital anomalies. Endoscopic repair is a successful technique for treating up to grade IIIa laryngealc lefts. Further investigation is needed to assess the best approach for treating longer clefts. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The interactions between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and angiotensin II (ANG II), and their direct effects in vitro on the enzymes involved in vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, were examined.

Rats were treated with guanethidine, losartan or the combined treatments.

An evident dependence of switching fields on the damping constant

An evident dependence of switching fields on the damping constant Alvespimycin nmr is observed in the presence of microwaves. The trend of the experimental data is well reproduced by a numerical simulation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The result indicates that the large damping decreases the efficiency of microwaves in reducing the magnetization switching field. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3631069]“
“A novel intumescent flame retardant (IFR), containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and poly(tetramethylene

terephthalamide) (PA4T), was prepared to flame-retard acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS). The flame retardation of the IFR/ABS composite was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 test. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and TGA coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) were carried out to study the thermal degradation behavior of the composite and look for the mechanism of the flame-retarded action. The morphology of the char obtained after combustion of

the composite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ARS-1620 ic50 It has been found the intumescent flame retardant showed good flame retardancy, with the LOI value of the PA4T/APP/ABS (7.5/22.5/70) system increasing from 18.5 to 30% and passing UL-94 V-1 rating. Meanwhile, the TGA and TG-FTIR work indicated that PA4T could be effective as a carbonization agent and there was some reaction between PA4T and APP, leading to some crosslinked and high temperature stable material formed, which probably effectively promoted the flame retardancy of ABS. Moreover, it was revealed that uniform and compact intumescent char layer was formed after combustion of the intumescent flame-retarded ABS composite. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Patients diagnosed with CHF have disproportionately high rates of depression. Research has demonstrated

significant consequences of depression in patients with CHF including poor quality of life, worse medical adherence and increased health complications, health care utilization, and medical costs. Despite these consequences, the treatment of depression MK-8776 manufacturer in patients with CHF has not been widely explored. In fact, a review of the literature demonstrates a clear gap when it comes to efficacious treatments of depression in patients afflicted with CHF. The present article introduces the empirically supported therapy ‘cognitive behavioral therapy’ (CBT) and provides information about the literature supporting the use of CBT in depressed patients. Finally, the present authors offer some practical suggestions for healthcare providers treating depressed patients with CHF.”

Standard DEB theory uses several state variables to characterize

Standard DEB theory uses several state variables to characterize the state of an individual organism, thereby making the transition to population dynamics technically challenging, while ecologists demand maximally simple models that can be used in multi-scale modelling. We demonstrate that simpler representations of individual bioenergetics with a single state variable (size), and two life stages (juveniles and adults), contain sufficient detail on mass and energy budgets to yield good fits to data on growth, maturation and reproduction of individual Daphnia in response to food availability. The same simple representations of

bioenergetics describe some features of Daphnia mortality, including enhanced mortality at low food that is not explicitly incorporated in the standard DEB model. selleck screening library Size-structured, population models incorporating

this additional mortality component resolve some long-standing questions on stability and population cycles in Daphnia. We conclude that a bioenergetic model serving solely as a ‘regression’ connecting organismal performance to the history of its environment can rest on simpler representations than those of standard DEB. But there are associated costs with such pragmatism, notably loss of connection to theory describing interspecific variation in physiological rates. The latter is an important issue, as the type of detailed study reported here can only be performed for a handful of species.”
“We this website analyzed genetic diversity and population genetic structure of four artificial populations of wild Tariquidar barley (Hordeum brevisubulatum); 96 plants collected from the Songnen Prairie in northeastern China were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), specific-sequence amplified polymorphism (SSAP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers. Indices of (epi-)genetic diversity, (epi-)genetic distance, gene flow,

genotype frequency, cluster analysis, PCA analysis and AMOVA analysis generated from MSAP, AFLP and SSAP markers had the same trend. We found a high level of correlation in the artificial populations between MSAP, SSAP and AFLP markers by the Mantel test (r > 0.8). This is incongruent with previous findings showing that there is virtually no correlation between DNA methylation polymorphism and classical genetic variation; the high level of genetic polymorphism could be a result of epigenetic regulation. We compared our results with data from natural populations. The population diversity of the artificial populations was lower. However, different from what was found using AFLP and SSAP, based on MSAP results the methylation polymorphism of the artificial populations was not significantly reduced. This leads us to suggest that the DNA methylation pattern change in H. brevisubulatum populations is not only related to DNA sequence variation, but is also regulated by other controlling systems.

The initial calibration data were provided by a diverse set of ch

The initial calibration data were provided by a diverse set of children with varying health states (e.g., children with a variety of common chronic illnesses) and racial/ethnic backgrounds.”
“Background: There is no information as to the extent by which Spanish gastroenterologists adhere to Crohn’s

disease (CD) management guidelines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of adherence of Spanish gastroenterologists to the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) guidelines and to determine whether differences in adherence exist between gastroenterologists specialized in inflammatory bowel diseases (GSIBDs) and general gastroenterologists (GGs).

Methods: This was a prospective, nation-wide, questionnaire-based survey covering aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and safety considered by the physicians in their daily management of CD, as well as demographic KPT-8602 research buy traits seen in clinical practice.


The overall degree of adherence to guidelines by both GSIBDs and GGs was high. However, the use of imaging techniques in diagnosis, follow-up, and in relapsed patients differed between the two groups. In the diagnosis of perianal disease, GSIBDs used magnetic resonance and surgical exploration under Dibutyryl-cAMP purchase anesthesia more frequently than GGs. In terms of therapeutic choices, the adherence to guidelines was good in both groups. However, GSIBDs showed significantly higher adherence in some areas: thiopurines were used less in refractory cases and methotrexate was used more commonly in corticoid-dependent, azathioprine-intolerant patients, and in patients under biological treatment. Request for infection studies and vaccinations at diagnosis or prior to treatment was more common among GSIBDs.

Conclusions: Guideline adherence among Spanish gastroenterologists Foretinib mouse is high. However, there are significant differences between IBD-specialized (more adherent in general) and non-specialized gastroenterologists. (C) 2012 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published

by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) aims to develop self-reported item banks for clinical research. The PROMIS pediatrics (aged 8-17) project focuses on the development of item banks across several health domains (physical function, pain, fatigue, emotional distress, social role relationships, and asthma symptoms). The psychometric properties of the anxiety and depressive symptom item banks are described.

Participants (n = 1,529) were recruited in public school settings, hospital-based outpatient and subspecialty pediatrics clinics. The anxiety (k = 18) and depressive symptoms (k = 21) items were split between two test administration forms. Hierarchical confirmatory factor-analytic models (CFA) were conducted to evaluate scale dimensionality and local dependence.

“Median sternotomy is the most common method of access to

“Median sternotomy is the most common method of access to the heart and great vessels in cardiac surgical procedures. However, particularly in obese and diabetic patients, complications such as dehiscence, osteomyelitis, mediastinitis OSI-027 ic50 and superficial wound infection or fistula formation may be encountered. To overcome these complications, some alternative surgical techniques and surgical equipment are designed for sternal closure. ‘Nitinol thermoreactive

clips’ is one of them. In this study, we report a patient with detachment of thermoreactive clips from sternum in the late postoperative period due to wrong measurement of distance between intercostal spaces.”
“Congenital arteriovenous malformations between the subclavian artery and the superior vena cava (SVC) is a very rare anomaly scantily described in the literature. We describe this anomaly in a 4-month-old infant who presented with congestive heart failure. He was diagnosed to have a right subclavian artery to SVC fistula associated with SVC stenosis. The child successfully underwent device (vascular plug) closure of the fistula and SVC stenting. Six months postprocedure,

AZD1480 child is doing well, with complete resolution of symptoms.”
“Introduction: Outcome after cardiac arrest is dependent on the quality of chest compressions (CC). A great number of devices have been developed to provide BIIB057 in vitro guidance during CPR. The present study evaluates a new CPR feedback system (Mini-VREM: Mini-Virtual Reality Enhanced Mannequin) designed to improve CC during training.

Methods: Mini-VREM system consists of a Kinect (R) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) motion sensing device and specifically developed software to provide audio-visual feedback. Mini-VREM was connected to a commercially available mannequin (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). Eighty trainees (healthcare professionals and lay people) volunteered in this randomised crossover pilot study. All subjects performed a 2 min CC trial, 1 h pause and

a second 2 min CC trial. The first group (FB/NFB, n = 40) performed CC with Mini-VREM feedback (FB) followed by CC without feedback (NFB). The second group (NFB/FB, n = 40) performed vice versa. Primary endpoints: adequate compression (compression rate between 100 and 120 min(-1) and compression depth between 50 and 60 mm); compressions rate within 100-120 min(-1); compressions depth within 50-60 mm.

Results: When compared to the performance without feedback, with Mini-VREM feedback compressions were more adequate (FB 35.78% vs. NFB 7.27%, p < 0.001) and more compressions achieved target rate (FB 72.04% vs. 31.42%, p < 0.001) and target depth (FB 47.34% vs. 24.87%, p = 0.002). The participants perceived the system to be easy to use with effective feedback.

Results: Dietary fiber consumption was inversely associated with

Results: Dietary fiber consumption was inversely associated with hormone concentrations (estradiol, progesterone, LH, and FSH; P, 0.05) and positively associated with the risk of anovulation (P = 0.003) by using random-effects models with adjustment for total calories, age, race, and vitamin E intake. Each 5-g/d increase in total fiber intake was associated with a 1.78-fold increased risk (95% CI: 1.11, 2.84) of an anovulatory cycle. The adjusted odds ratio of 5 g fruit fiber/d was 3.05 (95% CI: 1.07, 8.71).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that a diet high in fiber is significantly associated with decreased hormone

concentrations selleck inhibitor and a higher probability of anovulation. Further study of the effect of fiber on reproductive health and of the effect of these intakes in reproductive-aged

women is warranted. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:1061-9.”
“Polyamide 6 (PA 6) filaments with initial modulus around 48 GPa were produced Selleck Milciclib by dry spinning from low mole ratio (MR) complex of calcium chloride and high molecular weight PA 6 (CaCl(2)-PA 6) in formic acid. From the results of XRD, DSC, FTIR, and SEM, the complexation of CaCl(2)-PA 6 in the MR range of 0.15-0.3 was efficient. The spinnability of the complex solution was excellent, which allowed a maximum draw ratio of 14.4 for as-spun fibers. After decomplexing and annealing, the Ferroptosis inhibitor birefringence of drawn fiber could reach around 0.08. Porous structure

was found in fibers spun from formic acid-chloroform cosolvent but not observed by using pure formic acid. When MR of CaCl(2)/PA 6 exceeded 0.3, some irregular particles formed on the fiber surface due to the recrystallization of CaCl(2). However, fibers with smooth surface could be obtained when the MR decreased to 0.15. During the process of decomplexing in ethyl alcohol, an axial shrinkage of drawn fibers in a relaxed state was observed. It turned out that this shrinkage could be avoided by decompexing the fibers under tension. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1996-2004, 2010″
“Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. It mainly affects women with no significant cardiovascular risk factors and its presentation varies from unstable angina to sudden death. Knowledge of the condition is based only on individual case reports and the lack of large case series means that its treatment and prognostic implications have not been fully established. We present data on 19 instances of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in 18 patients who were treated at our center between May 1998 and January 2009. The median follow-up period was 3.8 years (interquartile range: 1.3-4.6 years). Once the acute phase had passed, the prognosis was favorable and there were no implications for functioning.

015/0 015 mu g/mL for penicillin G, 0 03/0 03 mu g/mL for ampicil

015/0.015 mu g/mL for penicillin G, 0.03/0.03 mu g/mL for ampicillin, 0.015/0.03 mu g/mL for cefotaxime, 0.03/0.03 mu g/mL for ceftriaxone, 0.008/0.008 mu g/mL for panipenem, 0.008/0.008 mu g/mL https://www.selleckchem.com/products/semaxanib-su5416.html for meropenem, and a parts per thousand currency sign0.004/a parts per thousand currency sign0.004 mu g/mL for doripenem, indicating the superior antimicrobial activities of carbapenem.”
“Background: This study assessed the agreement between

infrared tympanic membrane (TM), axillary, corrected axillary (+0.5 degrees C), oral, and corrected oral (+0.3 degrees C) to rectal thermometry as reference standard in neutropenic adults. The sensitivity and specificity of the mentioned thermometries in detecting Evofosfamide Others inhibitor rectal fever (>= 38 degrees C) were also analysed.

Method: This is a comparative diagnostic test study. A total of 400 sets of blinded simultaneous temperature readings were measured from 21 haemato-oncology in-patients with neutropenia following chemotherapy. Three-hundred sets were then randomly sampled. Agreements were analysed using random two-way intraclass correlation (ICC). Sensitivity

and specificity were analysed using contingency 2 x 2 table.

Findings: Both right and left TM thermometry have good correlation with rectal thermometry; 0.810 (95% CI, 0.748-0.855) and 0.770 (95% CI, 0.713-0.815) respectively. Axilla thermometry has weak agreement (ICC 0.486 (95% CI, 0.118-0.689)) with rectal thermometry. The sensitivity (sn) and specificity (sp) in detecting rectal fever (>= 38 degrees C) were: right TM (sn) 0.712 (95% CI, 0.586-0.814), (sp) 0.957 (95% CI, 0.920-0.978); oral (sn) 0.561 (95% CI, 0.433-0.681), (sp) 0.983 (95% CI, 0.954-0.995);

and axilla (sn) 0.348 (95% CI, 0.238-0.477), (sp) 0.996 (95% CI, 0.973-0.999).

Interpretation: Single tympanic membrane thermometry is in good agreement with rectal thermometry. It is more sensitive than oral or axillary thermometry in detecting rectal fever. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims. Antenatal dexamethasone administration for fetal lung development may impair maternal BV-6 ic50 glucose tolerance. In this study, we investigated whether glucose and insulin levels differed among singleton and twin pregnancies and pregnancies with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after treatment with dexamethasone. Methods. Singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies, and pregnancies with IGT between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation whose mothers were treated with dexamethasone were enrolled in this study. Exclusion criteria included gestational hypertension, diabetes, renal disorders, and infectious diseases. The fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were checked before administration and 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after treatment was completed. Results. Mean glucose levels were significantly higher in the twin pregnancy and IGT groups at 24 h and 48 h after the administration of dexamethasone than those in the singleton pregnancy group (P < 0.05).

Introductions to, and extralimital

Introductions to, and extralimital Salubrinal introductions within South Africa have increased through time, with propagule pressure being highest in areas with high human population density. The long distances ungulates have been translocated raise concerns for genetic homogenization. Translocations of indigenous ungulate species extralimitally have significantly altered range sizes, typically to a greater extent than is expected from range shifts associated with global climate change. Although ungulate introductions and translocations are likely to have impacts on biodiversity, evidence for such impacts in South Africa, and elsewhere, is limited. Whilst arguments may be made for

a precautionary approach to ungulate introductions, an evidence-based one is much more likely to deliver efficient and convincing conservation decision-making. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Disgust is an evolved psychological system for protecting organisms from infection through disease avoidant behaviour. This ‘behavioural immune system’, present in GDC-0973 chemical structure a diverse array of species, exhibits universal features that orchestrate hygienic behaviour in response to cues of risk of contact with pathogens. However, disgust is also a dynamic adaptive system. Individuals show variation in pathogen avoidance

associated with psychological traits like having a neurotic personality, as well as a consequence of being in certain physiological states such as pregnancy or infancy. Three specialized learning mechanisms modify the disgust response: the Garcia effect, evaluative conditioning and the law of contagion. Hygiene behaviour is influenced at the group level through social learning

heuristics such as ‘copy the frequent’. Finally, group hygiene is extended symbolically to cultural rules about purity and pollution, which create social separations and are enforced as manners. Cooperative hygiene endeavours such as sanitation also reduce pathogen prevalence. Our model allows us to integrate perspectives from psychology, ecology and cultural evolution with those of epidemiology and anthropology. Understanding the nature of disease avoidance psychology at all levels A-769662 price of human organization can inform the design of programmes to improve public health.”
“The Arabidopsis copine gene BON1 encodes a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein involved in plant growth homeostasis and disease resistance. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which BON1 modulates plant growth and defense responses are not well understood. Here, we show that BON1 interacts physically with the leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinases BIR1 (BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase 1) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptor regulator BAK1 in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, bon1 and bir1 mutants exhibit synergistic interaction.

“The mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 (

“The mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 (AGC1), specific to neurons and muscle, supplies aspartate to the cytosol and, as a component of the malate-aspartate shuttle, enables mitochondrial oxidation of cytosolic NADH, thought to be important in providing energy for neurons in the central nervous system. We describe AGC1 deficiency, a novel syndrome characterized

by arrested psychomotor Alisertib development, hypotonia, and seizures in a child with a homozygous missense mutation in the solute carrier family 25, member 12, gene SLC25A12, which encodes the AGC1 protein. Functional analysis of the mutant AGC1 protein showed abolished activity. The child had global hypomyelination in the cerebral hemispheres, suggesting that impaired efflux of aspartate from neuronal mitochondria prevents normal myelin formation.”
“The mRNAs of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), the prototype of the Bunyaviridae family, possess a 5′ cap structure but lack a 3′ poly(A) tail, a common feature of eukaryotic mRNAs that Mocetinostat greatly enhances translation efficiency. Viral mRNAs also contain untranslated regions (UTRs) that flank the coding sequence. Using model virus-like mRNAs that harbor the Renilla luciferase reporter gene, we found

that the 3′ UTR of the BUNV small-segment mRNA mediated efficient translation in the absence of a poly(A) tail. Viral UTRs did not increase RNA stability, and polyadenylation did not significantly enhance reporter activity. Translation of virus-like mRNAs in transfected cells was unaffected by knockdown of poly(A)-binding protein (PABP)

but was markedly reduced by depletion of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G, suggesting a PABP-independent process for translation initiation. In BUNV-infected cells, translation of polyadenylated but not virus-like mRNAs was inhibited. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the viral nucleocapsid protein binds to, and colocalizes with, PABP in the cytoplasm early in infection, IWP-2 solubility dmso followed by nuclear retention of PABP. Our results suggest that BUNV corrupts PABP function in order to inhibit translation of polyadenylated cellular mRNAs while its own mRNAs are translated in a PABP-independent process.”
“Noroviruses (NVs) are recognized as a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Studies of the human NVs continue to be hampered by the inability to propagate them in any cell culture system. Until recently, most data concerning NV replication were derived from studies of feline calicivirus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, which are cultivable members of the family Caliciviridae. From such studies, it was proposed that caliciviruses induce apoptosis to facilitate the dissemination of viral progeny in the host. The discovery that MNV type 1 (MNV-1) grows in RAW264.7 cells provided the first cell culture system for use in studying the role of apoptosis in NV infection.