We included studies published as abstracts only along with studies published as full-textmanuscripts\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nTwo review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy.\n\nMain GW2580 results\n\nFor this update,
12 trials (1557 women and 1661 infants) were included. Dexamethasone was associated with a reduced risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) compared with betamethasone (risk ratio (RR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.92; four trials, 549 infants). No statistically significant differences were seen for other primary outcomes: respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) HM781-36B chemical structure (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.27; five trials, 753 infants) and perinatal death (neonatal death RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.54 to 3.67; four trials, 596 infants). Similarly, very few differences were seen for secondary outcomes such as rate of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) although in one trial, those infants exposed to dexamethasone, compared with betamethasone, had a significantly shorter length of NICU admission (mean difference (MD) -0.91 days, 95% CI -1.77 to -0.05;
70 infants). Results for biophysical parameters were inconsistent, but mostly no clinically important differences were seen.\n\nCompared with intramuscular dexamethasone, oral dexamethasone significantly increased the incidence of neonatal sepsis (RR 8.48, 95% CI 1.11 to 64.93) in one trial of 183 infants. No statistically significant differences were seen for other outcomes reported.\n\nApart from a reduced maternal postpartum length of stay for women who received betamethasone at 12-hourly intervals compared to 24-hourly intervals in one trial (MD -0.73 days, 95% CI -1.28 to -0.18; 215 women), no differences
in maternal or neonatal outcomes were seen between the different betamethasone dosing intervals MX69 cost assessed. Similarly, no significant differences in outcomes were seen when betamethasone acetate and phosphate was compared with betamethasone phosphate in one trial.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nIt remains unclear whether one corticosteroid (or one particular regimen) has advantages over another.\n\nDexamethasone may have some benefits compared with betamethasone such as less IVH, and a shorter length of stay in the NICU. The intramuscular route may have advantages over the oral route for dexamethasone, as identified in one small trial. Apart from the suggestion that 12-hour dosing may be as effective as 24-hour dosing of betamethasone based on one small trial, few other conclusions about optimal antenatal corticosteroid regimens were able to be made. No long-term results were available except for a small subgroup of 18 month old children in one trial. Trials comparing the commonly used corticosteroids are most urgently needed, as are trials of dosages and other variations in treatment regimens.
Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, MK5108 concentration L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection ( smaller than 20%) and limited cercarial production ( smaller than 50 cercariae per infected snail) noted with these juveniles could not explain the high values noted in these cattle herds. As paramphistomosis due to Calicophoron daubneyi was not still noted in these farms,
the existence of another mode of infection was hypothesized. Experimental infection of several successive generations of L. glabra, originating from eggs laid by their parents already infected with this parasite resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence of snail infection and the number of shed cercariae. The aim of this paper was to determine
if this mode of snail infection was specific to L. glabra, or it might occur in other lymnaeid species such as L. fuscus and 3-deazaneplanocin A R. balthica. Methods: Five successive generations of L. fuscus and R. balthica were subjected to individual bimiracidial infections in the laboratory. Resulting rediae and cercariae in the first four generations were counted after snail dissection at day 50 p.e. (20 degrees C), while the dynamics of cercarial shedding was followed in the F5 generation. Results: In the first experiment, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula.
Conclusion: The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations, coming from parents infected with this parasite, resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence and intensity of snail infection. This may explain high prevalence of fasciolosis noted in several cattle-breeding farms when the common snail host of this digenean, G. truncatula, is lacking.”
“Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection Cyclopamine is a global health problem estimated to affect almost 200 million people worldwide. The aim of this study is to analyze the subtypes and existence of variants resistant to protease inhibitors and their association with potential HCV risk factors among blood donors in Brazil. Methods: Repeat anti-HCV reactive blood donors are systematically asked to return for retest, notification, and counseling in which they are interviewed for risk factors for transfusion-transmitted diseases. We analyzed 202 donors who returned for counseling from 2007 to 2010 and presented enzyme immunoassay-and immunoblot-reactive results.
10 to 2.17)). Asthma significantly increased the risk of Perthes’ disease (OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.76)), which remained after adjusting for oral/parenteral steroid use.\n\nPerthes’ disease has a significant association with congenital genitourinary and inguinal anomalies, suggesting that intra-uterine factors may be critical to causation. Dinaciclib Cell Cycle inhibitor Other comorbid associations may offer insight to support or refute theories of pathogenesis.”
“Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been used with increasing frequency to treat congenital bone marrow failure syndrome (CBMFs) successfully. Decision to perform BMT, however, is difficult
in the case of comorbidity because of regimen-related toxicities. We describe here a child with CBMFs, severe cerebral palsy (CP) at Gross Motor Function Classification System level V and mental retardation (MR) who
was transfusion dependent despite various medications. She underwent BMT from an HLA-1 locus-mismatched unrelated donor. Although engraftment was successful, no neurological improvement was seen 5 years after BMT. While CBMFs patients who have CP and MR could undergo transplantation safely, they may not benefit neurologically from BMT.”
“Recent studies have demonstrated significant regional variability in the hemodynamic response function (HRF), highlighting the difficulty of correctly interpreting functional MRI (fMRI) data without proper modeling of the HRF. The focus of this study was to investigate the HRF variability within find more visual cortex. The HRF was estimated for a number of cortical visual areas by deconvolution www.selleckchem.com/products/gw3965.html of fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses to brief, large-field visual stimulation. Significant HRF variation was found across visual areas V1, V2, V3, V4, VO-1,2, V3AB, IPS-0,1,2,3, LO-1,2, and TO-1,2. Additionally, a subpopulation of voxels was identified that exhibited an impulse response waveform that was similar, but not identical, to an inverted version of the commonly described and modeled positive HRF. These
voxels were found within the retinotopic confines of the stimulus and were intermixed with those showing positive responses. The spatial distribution and variability of these HRFs suggest a vascular origin for the inverted waveforms. We suggest that the polarity of the HRF is a separate factor that is independent of the suppressive or activating nature of the underlying neuronal activity. Correctly modeling the polarity of the HRF allows one to recover an estimate of the underlying neuronal activity rather than discard the responses from these voxels on the assumption that they are artifactual. We demonstrate this approach on phase-encoded retinotopic mapping data as an example of the benefits of accurately modeling the HRF during the analysis of fMRI data. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5550-5564, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
\n\nFrom January 2002 to December 2007, we retrospectively studied 197 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer. MDCT was performed on 192 patients prior to preoperative visceral angiography; 153 patients underwent CTAP + CTHA at the time of preoperative angiography.\n\nLiver metastases were identified in 39 patients by means of
MDCT. Of the 153 patients who had no evidence of liver metastases on MDCT, 129 patients underwent CTAP + CTHA, and 53 of these 129 patients (41.1%) were diagnosed as having liver metastases that could not be detected by MDCT. These tumors missed by MDCT ranged from 3 to 15 mm in size. On CTAP + CTHA, a solitary nodule in the liver was detected in 11 patients, 2 nodules were detected in 6 patients, 3 lesions were detected in 2 patients, and a parts per thousand 4 lesions selleck compound were detected in 34 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of CTAP + CTHA versus MDCT were 94.2 versus 48.4% and 82.7 versus 97.9%, respectively.\n\nThe combination of CTAP and CTHA is useful to confirm liver metastases and can potentially offer more accurate staging of pancreatic cancer compared with MDCT.”
“To determine the effect of trans-anastomotic tube (TAT) feeding on outcome following repair of congenital
duodenal obstruction (CDO).\n\nRetrospective comparative study of all infants with CDO over 10 years. Data are median (range). Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact EPZ5676 manufacturer test were used.\n\nOf 55 infants with CDO (48 atresia, 7 stenosis), 17 were managed with a TAT, 38 without. Enteral feeds were commenced earlier in infants with a TAT compared to those without (TAT 2 days post-repair [1-4] vs. no-TAT 3 days post-repair [1-7]; p = 0.006). Infants with a TAT achieved full enteral feeds significantly sooner than those without (TAT 6 days post-repair [2-12] vs. no-TAT 9 days post-repair [3-36]; p = 0.005). Significantly fewer infants in the TAT group required central venous catheter (CVC) placement and parenteral
nutrition (PN) than selleck screening library in the no-TAT group (TAT 2/17 vs. no-TAT 28/38, p < 0.0001). There were six CVC-related complications (5 infections, 1 PN extravasation) and four TATs became displaced and were removed before achieving full enteral feeds. One infant with a TAT with trisomy 21 and undiagnosed Hirschsprung disease developed an anastomotic leak and jejunal perforation requiring re-operation.\n\nA TAT significantly shortens time to full enteral feeds in infants with CDO significantly reducing the need for central venous access and PN.”
“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The observed type of heredity associated with MS is characteristic of polygenic diseases, which arises from a joint contribution of a number of independently acting or interacting polymorphic genes.
“Purpose: To determine surgical outcomes after transcranial decompression of the superior CHIR99021 orbit in patients with progressive compressive optic neuropathy (CON) secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy
(GO) who had previously been treated with 3-wall decompression. Methods: Approval from the West Virginia University Institution Review Board was obtained. A retrospective review of 4 patients with GO who received bilateral transcranial decompression of the orbits for progressive compressive optic neuropathy after bilateral maximal extracranial 3-wall decompression was performed. The patients were treated by the Multidisciplinary Orbit and Skull Base Services at West Virginia University and the University of Michigan. Results: Bilateral transcranial decompression of the orbit for GO was performed on 8 orbits in 4 patients. All 8 orbits had radiographic evidence of compression of the orbital apex,
and all patients had been treated with steroids, orbital radiation, and bilateral 3-wall decompression. Preoperative vision ranged from 20/25 to 20/100, which improved to 20/25 or better in all eyes. The visual field mean SCH 900776 deviation improved from a mean of -13.05 to -1.67 dB. Hertel measurements improved from a mean of 19.25 to 15.25 mm. Extraocular motility was essentially unchanged. Two patients were noted to have asymptomatic ocular pulsations. There were no other complications, and all patients remained stable during a follow-up period of 5 years (range 2-8 years). Conclusions: Transcranial decompression is an effective and safe method of salvaging vision when standard GSK621 purchase treatments fail. This
is only the second report of transcranial decompression for refractory compressive optic neuropathy after decompression from a standard approach.”
“A number of statistical techniques have been proposed by many authors to estimate the parameters in a linear structural relationship model, but only few papers discuss the precision of these estimators. In this study, we derive the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the parameters by assuming the slope parameter beta is known. beta is estimated separately by a nonparametric method and is assumed to be known when other parameters are estimated by an MLE. We obtain closed-form estimates of parameters as well as the variance-covariance matrix. Using a simulation study and a real-world example we show that the estimated values of the parameters are unbiased and consistent.”
“Background and Aims. Little evidence exists regarding the association of leptin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by conventional criteria. Moreover, the contribution of obesity to this relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association between leptin concentrations with MetS in obese and nonobese subjects.\n\nMethods. Data from the Third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (SuRFNCD) in Iran was used.
Until 48 hr after cardiac catheterization,
there was no significant increase in serum creatinine level in all patients. Unlike urine kidney injury molecule-1, IL-18 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, urine liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) level showed biphasic pattern and the significant difference in the levels of urine L-FABP between 24 and 48 hr. We suggest that urine L-FABP can be one of the useful biomarkers to detect subclinical AKI developed by the contrast before cardiac surgery.”
“In the developing nervous system, synaptic connections are formed in excess and must remodel to achieve the precise synaptic connectivity characteristic of the mature organism. Synaptic pruning is a developmental process in which DZNeP molecular weight subsets of synapses are eliminated
while the remaining synapses are preserved and strengthened. Recent findings have demonstrated unexpected roles for glial cells in this developmental process. These data demonstrate that phagocytic glia engulf synaptic and/or axonal elements in the developing nervous system and disruptions in this process result in sustained deficits in synaptic connectivity. These new findings highlight the importance of glia for nervous system development and function and may shed new light on mechanisms underlying nervous system disease.”
“The mechanism by which GnRH stimulates annexin A5 expression was examined with L beta T2 gonadotrope cells. Continuous stimulation with GnRH analog (GnRHa, Des-Gly10 [Pro9]-GnRH ethylamide) transiently Linsitinib ic50 elevated LH beta mRNA expression while maintaining annexin A5 mRNA at high levels for 24 h. GnRH
antagonist blocked the effect of GnRHa on annexin A5. While 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13 acetate, a protein kinase C activator, increased the expression of annexin A5 mRNA, bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, suppressed GnRha-stimulated expression Selleck Dinaciclib of annexin A5 and LH beta mRNA. GnRHa stimulation of LH beta mRNA was inhibited to a greater extent than annexin A5 by a calcium chelator BAPTA/AM. Although a calcium ionophore ionomycin stimulated the expression of both genes, only LH beta was down-regulated. The MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059 inhibited GnRHa induction of annexin A5 but not LH beta mRNA. EGF stimulated the expression of annexin A5 mRNA but caused only a transient effect on LH beta mRNA expression. These results indicate that GnRH stimulation of signaling pathway for annexin A5 mRNA expression is distinct from that of LH beta mRNA and dependent more on MAPK.”
“This paper examines up to third-order geometric properties of wrist path and the first-order property of wrist trajectory (wrist speed) for spatial pointing movements.
(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Gnetum (Gnetales: Gnetaceae) constitutes an evolutionarily isolated gymnosperm clade, comprising about 40 species that inhabit
tropical areas of the world. While its closest living relative, the monotypic Welwitschia, has a well-documented fossil record from the Early Cretaceous, Gnetum-like fossils are rare and poorly understood. The phylogeny of Gnetum has been studied previously but the distant relationship to outgroups and the difficulty of obtaining plant material mean it is not yet fully resolved. Most species are tropical lianas with an angiospermous vegetative habit that are difficult to find and identify. Here a new phylogeny is presented based on nuclear and chloroplast data from 58 Gnetum accessions, representing 27 putative find more species, and outgroup information from other seed plants. The results provide support for South American species being sister to the remaining species. The two African species constitute a monophyletic group, sister to an Asian clade, within which the two arborescent species of the genus are the earliest diverging. Estimated divergence times indicate, in contrast with previous results, that the major lineages of Gnetum diverged in the Late
Cretaceous. This result is obtained LY2835219 solubility dmso regardless of tree prior used in the BEAST analyses (Yule or birth-death). Together these findings suggest a correlation between early divergence events in extant Gnetum and the breakup of Gondwana in the Cretaceous. Compared to the old stem ages of major subclades of Gnetum, crown nodes date to the Cenozoic: the Asian crown group
dates to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, the African crown group to the mid-Paleogene, and the South American crown group PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 purchase to the Paleogene-Neogene boundary. Although dispersal must have contributed to the current distribution of Gnetum, e.g., within South America and from Southeast Asian islands to the East Asian mainland, dispersal has apparently not occurred across major oceans, at least not during the Cenozoic.”
“Lipocalins have been known for their several biological activities in blood-sucking arthropods. Recently, the identification and characterization of lipocalins from Ixodes ricinus (LIRs) have been reported and functions of lipocalins are well documented. In this study, we have characterized four Ixodes persulcatus lipocalins that were discovered while analyzing I. persulcatus tick salivary gland EST library. We show that the four I. persulcatus lipocalins, here after named LIPERs (lipocalin from I. persulcatus) are 28.8-94.4% identical to LIRs from I. ricinus. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that lipocalin genes were expressed specifically in the salivary glands throughout life cycle stages of the ticks and were up-regulated by blood feeding. The specific expressions were also confirmed by Western blotting analysis.
Pediatrics 2012; 129: 153-162″
“Background: Cutaneous injection-related infections (CIRI) are a primary reason individuals who inject drugs (IDU) are hospitalized. The objective of this study was to investigate determinants of hospitalization for a CIRI or related infectious complication among a cohort of supervised injection facility (SIF) users.\n\nMethods: From 1 January 1 2004 until 31 January 2008, using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined
CYT387 molecular weight determinants of hospitalization for a CIRI or related infectious complication (based on ICD 10 codes) among 1083 IDU recruited from within the SIF. Length of stay in hospital and cost estimates, based on a fully-allocated costing model, was also evaluated.\n\nResults: Among hospital admissions, 49% were due to a CIRI or related infectious complication. The incidence density for hospitalization for a CIRI or related infectious complication was 6.07 per 100 person-years (95% confidence Copanlisib order intervals [CI]: 4.96 – 7.36). In the adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, being HIV positive (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.79 [95% CI: 1.17 - 2.76]) and being referred to the hospital by a nurse at the SIF (AHR = 5.49 [95% CI: 3.48 - 8.67]) were associated with increased hospitalization. Length of stay in hospital was significantly shorter among participants referred to the hospital by a nurse at
the SIF when compared to those who were not referred (4 days [interquartile range IQR: 2-7] versus 12 days [IQR: 5-33]) even after adjustment for confounders (p = 0.001).\n\nConclusions: A strong predictor of hospitalization for a CIRI or related infectious complication was being referred to the hospital by a nurse from the SIF. This finding indicates that nurses not only facilitate
hospital utilization but may provide early intervention that prevents lengthy and expensive hospital visits for a CIRI or related infectious complication.”
“Introduction The purpose of this study was to report the feasibility of the ultrashort Selleckchem PARP inhibitor time-to-echo (UTE) MRI technique to assess cartilaginous endplate (CEP) defects in humans in vivo and to assess their relationship with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration.\n\nMethods Nine volunteer subjects (mean age=43.9 years; range=22-61 years) were recruited, representing 54 IVDs and 108 CEPs. The subjects underwent T2-weighted and UTE MRI to assess for the presence and severity of IVD degeneration, and for the presence of CEP defects, respectively, from T12 to S1. IVD degeneration was graded according to the Schneiderman etal. classification on T2-weighted MRI. CEP defects were defined on UTE MRI as discontinuity of high signal over four consecutive images and were independently assessed by two observers.\n\nResults Thirty-seven out of 108 (34.
(C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and
Oncology 99 (2011) 1-5″
“Aberrant angiogenesis is common Cell Cycle inhibitor to a variety of diseases in which alterations in tissue mechanical properties also occur. A fundamental understanding of the interdependence of angiogenesis and tissue structural properties may enhance the development of therapeutic strategies. We previously established that increasing extracellular matrix density inhibits capillary morphogenesis in three-dimensional tissues in vitro, and that addition of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) partially rescues a healthy angiogenic phenotype. This study’s goal was to investigate if these effects can be recapitulated in vivo. Mocetinostat Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, MSCs, or a mixture of both was suspended in fibrin gel precursor solutions of 5, 10, and 15 mg/mL concentrations and injected subcutaneously into SCID mice. Neovascularization was assessed in tissue constructs retrieved at 3, 7, and 21 days by quantifying vessel numbers, perfusion, thickness, maturity, and perivascular collagen deposition. The data show that changing extracellular matrix density
inhibits capillary morphogenesis in vivo in a manner consistent with that observed in vitro. Delivery of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and MSCs produced more robust and mature vessels than delivery of either cell type alone in all tissue concentrations.”
“In the setting of liver transplantation, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) may be used as an adjuvant therapy for immunosuppression to
prevent graft rejection; however, its use may be limited due to severe gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. In contrast, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) may be associated with less severe side effects and hence better tolerability. We compared the side effects of EC-MPS to MMF in liver transplant patients in a de novo study (Study I-randomized, prospective, double-blinded) and a conversion study (Study II). In both studies, the severity of GI symptoms was assessed at various time points using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS) survey, a validated survey of GI symptoms (abdominal pain, reflux, indigestion, diarrhea, and constipation). ACY-738 In Study I, the symptoms of 30 recipients receiving EC-MPS (n = 15) were compared to 15 recipients receiving MMF. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) of the total GSRS scores and symptom syndrome subscores revealed no significant difference (p bigger than 0.05) between the two medications over time. A conversion study (Study II) with 29 participants, however, showed that over time, all GI symptoms improved significantly (p smaller than 0.001) when the patients were treated with EC-MPS instead of MMF.
In addition, the sympathetic nervous system responds to chronic nociception with enhanced sympathetic activation. Not only motor and sympathetic output pathways are affected AZD9291 datasheet by nociceptive input, afferent pathways (proprioception, somatosensory processing) are influenced by tonic muscle nociception
as well.\n\nDiscussion: The clinical consequence of the shift in thinking is to stop trying to restore normal motor control in case of chronic nociception. Activation of central nociceptive inhibitory mechanisms, by decreasing nociceptive input, might address nociception-motor interactions.”
“Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an
arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of www.selleckchem.com/products/CX-6258.html arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wildtype ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to
anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization.”
“The lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and the lamellar body count (LBC) can be used to predict respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).\n\nWe performed a retrospective cohort study among consecutive women who underwent amniotic fluid Cediranib in vitro sampling for the assessment of fetal lung maturity. Logistic regression was used to construct models for the prediction of RDS in three gestational age categories, with models based on clinical characteristics only, clinical characteristics and the LBC, and on clinical characteristics and L/S ratio.\n\nWhen amniotic fluid was collected < 30 weeks, the specificity of the LBC was 30% and the sensitivity 100%. Addition of the L/S ratio increased the specifity to 60%, for a sensitivity of 100%. When amniocentesis was performed between 30 and 33 weeks, addition of the L/S ratio only marginally improved the performance of the LBC.