We also acknowledge that additional research is necessary to investigate how apomorphine influences cognition in PD patients with greater disease severity and longer disease duration that those reported here. Nonetheless, it is important to point out that this study was designed to explore how apomorphine influenced working memory in PD at a neural rather than Sorafenib Tosylate clinical trial behavioral Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical level. To this end, fMRI is a sensitive tool which can reveal subtle effects of drugs on brain responses, even before the occurrence of noticeable behavioral findings. In fact, apomorphine modulated neural responses independently from its behavioral effects, and this was demonstrated by the stability of the results
when fMRI analyses assessing the main effect of treatment were repeated including RT and accuracy as variables of no interest. Overall, our data extend the knowledge about Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the neural mechanisms of apomorphine in PD by showing that this potent dopamine agonist increased striatal response and reduced SFG activation during working memory. The enhanced striatal response to apomorphine might depend on the super-sensitivity of postsynaptic D2 receptors. There Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is evidence, in animal models of PD, that lesioning
dopaminergic neurons causes reduced DAT-BPND values, increased D2 receptor binding, and increased BOLD response to apomorphine in the striatum (Nguyen et al. 2000). Comparative research has also suggested that this enhanced striatal BOLD response to apomorphine may indirectly reflect
the state of postsynaptic D2 receptors (i.e., sensitivity and/or number) (Zhang et al. 2000, 2006). Although the sensitivity and/or number of D2 receptors were not measured in this study, we selleck chemicals Cabozantinib speculate that the progressive nigrostriatal degeneration Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in PD induced a D2 receptor super-sensitivity state which, in turn, guided the abnormal striatal responses to apomorphine during all working-memory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical loads. However, it remains to be explained why we found an inverted-U-shaped relation between DAT-BPND values and the brain responses to apomorphine. We hypothesize at least two, not mutually exclusive, explanations for this finding. First, there is clear in vitro evidence that the Entinostat number of striatal D2 receptors follows an inverted-U curve after lesioning dopaminergic neurons (i.e., the number of receptors continue to rise until the ~100th day after the dopaminergic damage; next, it gradually reverts to normal levels, which are reached after ~500 days in total) (Todd et al. 1996). Second, an inverted-U-shaped relation between D2 receptors number and/or sensitivity and disease progression has been also observed in vivo, in PD patients at different stages (Antonini et al. 1994, 1995; Ichise et al. 1999). In particular, patients with initial or advanced PD display normal D2 receptor number and/or sensitivity, while patients with intermediate disease progression show increased D2 receptors number and/or sensitivity (Antonini et al. 1994, 1995; Ichise et al. 1999).