(c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Recent studies have

(c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Recent studies have shown

that molecular control of inner floral organ identity appears to be largely conserved between monocots and dicots, but little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying development of the monocot outer floral organ, a unique floral structure in grasses. In this study, we report the cloning of the rice EXTRA GLUME1 (EG1) gene, a putative lipase gene that Sotrastaurin cell line specifies empty-glume fate and floral meristem determinacy. In addition to affecting the identity and number of empty glumes, mutations in EG1 caused ectopic floral organs to be formed at each organ whorl or in extra ectopic whorls. Iterative glume-like structures or new floral organ primordia were formed in the presumptive region of the carpel, resulting in an indeterminate floral meristem. EG1 is expressed strongly in inflorescence primordia and weakly in developing floral primordia. We also found that the floral meristem and organ identity gene OsLHS1 showed altered expression

SHP099 supplier with respect to both pattern and levels in the eg1 mutant, and is probably responsible for the pleiotropic floral defects in eg1. As a putative class III lipase that functionally differs from any known plant lipase, EG1 reveals a novel pathway that regulates rice empty-glume fate and spikelet development.”
“During atherosclerosis monocyte-derived macrophages accumulate cholesteryl esters from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) via lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) and class AI and AII (SR-AI, SR-AII) and class B (SR-BI, CD36) scavenger receptors. Here we examined the hypothesis that hyperglycaemia may modulate receptor expression and hence lipid accumulation in macrophages. Human monocytes were matured into macrophages in 30 versus 5 mM glucose and receptor expression and lipid accumulation quantified. High glucose elevated LOX1 mRNA, but decreased IPI-145 nmr SR-AI, SR-BI, LDLR, and CD36 mRNA. SR-BI and CD36 protein levels were decreased. Normo- and hyperglycaemic cells accumulated cholesteryl esters from modified LDL to a greater extent than control

LDL, but total and individual cholesteryl ester accumulation was not affected by glucose levels. It is concluded that, whilst macrophage scavenger receptor mRNA and protein levels can be modulated by high glucose, these are not key factors in lipid accumulation by human macrophages under the conditions examined.”
“BACKGROUND: Oxidative absorption of hydrogen sulfide into a solution of ferric chelates is studied in a stirred cell glass reactor. The experiments were performed to investigate the degradation of chelates sodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) (Merck), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid diadisodium salt (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at 313 K, pH 6, iron concentration 10 000 g L1 and Fe:chelate molar ratio 1:2.

After 55 days, important digestive enzymes were assayed For immun

After 55 days, important digestive enzymes were assayed For immunological study, lysozyme, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels were measured Then the fish were kept for one Month Without radiation and lysozyme level was measured

Results: Protein concentration varied directly with the duration of exposure and was highest among fish that had received the 15 min UV-B irradiation Significantly higher amylase, protease, try sin and chymotrypsin activities were LY333531 concentration found in 5 min exposed fish compared to others Lysozyme level was significantly higher in control group compared

to the UV-B treated fish. The lysozyme level decreased with the increasing duration of UV-B radiation When fish were kept without UV-B Selleck GSK1838705A radiation for one month, lysozyme level was brought to the normal level in all treatments, except 15 min exposed fish The GOT and GPT levels were significantly higher in the 15 min exposed group than others

Conclusions: The effects of UV-B radiation on

the digestive physiology and immune system of catla have been clearly observed in the present study The decreased enzyme activities in UV-B radiated fish results into improper digestion and poor growth”
“Interstitial cystitis is a multifaceted medical condition consisting of pelvic pain, urgency, and frequency. Can sacral neuromodulation be successfully utilized for the medium term of a parts per thousand yen6 years in interstitial cystitis patients for whom standard drug therapies have failed?

In our ATM Kinase Inhibitor cell line observational, retrospective, case-controlled review (January 2002-March 2004), we sought to discern whether neuromodulation could be successfully implemented with acceptable morbidity rates in interstitial cystitis patients. Thirty-four

female patients underwent stage 1 and 2 InterStim placements under a general anesthetic. Simple means and medians were analyzed.

Mean pre-op/post-op pelvic pain and urgency/frequency scores were 21.61 +/- 8.6/9.22 +/- 6.6 (p < 0.01), and mean pre-op/post-op visual analog pain scale (VAPS) were 6.5 +/- 2.9/2.4 +/- 1.1 (p < 0.01). Median age was 41 +/- 14.8 years with a mean follow-up of 86 +/- 9.8 months.

With a minimum 6-year follow-up we determined that sacral neuromodulation provides adequate improvement for the symptoms of recalcitrant interstitial cystitis.”
“The oxidation state of Mn in cubic SrMnO3 and orthorhombic SrMnO2.5 was investigated by electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy. Change in the oxidation state of Mn produced some spectral changes in the O-K edge as well as in the Mn-L-2,L-3 edge EEL spectra. This study demonstrated that the oxidation state of Mn and the amount of oxygen vacancies in cubic SrMnO3 and orthorhombic SrMnO2.5 could be quantified by analyzing the features of the O-K edge spectrum and the Mn L-3/L-2 ratio in the Mn-L-2,L-3 edge spectrum.

Patients with cystitis were included as controls E coli isolate

Patients with cystitis were included as controls. E. coli isolates

from urine (cystitis, APN, Navitoclax order and ALN) or blood (urosepsis) specimens were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 25 virulence genes.

Results: A total of 147 children (24 cystitis, 45 APN, 48 ALN, and 30 urosepsis) were enrolled in the study. Distinct syndrome-specific differences in the distribution for certain virulence genes, but conservation across syndromes for others, were found. In addition, urosepsis isolates presented higher aggregate virulence factor scores (P < 0.0001) compared with cystitis, APN, and ALN isolates. By contrast, cystitis isolates showed significantly lower aggregate virulence factor scores than all 3 invasive urinary bacterial infections; APN (P < 0.01), ALN (P < 0.01), and urosepsis (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that urosepsis isolates carry more virulence factors and are likely more urovirulent compared with cystitis, APN, and ALN isolates.”
“To understand the patient burden of study procedures/measures at completion of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) requiring extensive testing and follow-up visits.

A survey sent after completing the 2-year visit of an RCT comparing Burch colposuspension and fascial retropubic sling to treat stress urinary

incontinence assessed degree of bother for seven study procedures, eight study-related factors, and possible SHP099 mouse motivations to participate in the study.

A total of 450 study participants (88%) returned the survey. Urodynamic testing was the most bothersome procedure, followed by 24-h pad test and Q-tip test. Self-administered questionnaires were the least bothersome. Main reasons to participate in the study were to help others, obtain better knowledge about the condition, and be guided by a committed team of investigators/study coordinators.

At the end

of a large multicenter RCT, we learned from a confidential patient survey that the most burdensome activities involved invasive procedures, frequent visits, and multiple forms to fill out.”
“Polycrystalline (PC) and single IPI-145 mw crystalline (SC) Ca-doped LaCoO3 (LCCO) samples with the perovskite structure were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction and the floating-zone growth method. We present the results of a comprehensive investigation of the magnetic properties of the LCCO system. Systematic measurements have been conducted on dc magnetization, ac susceptibility, exchange-bias, and the magnetocaloric effect. These findings suggest that complex structural phases, ferromagnetic (FM), and spin-glass/cluster-spin-glass (CSG), and their transitions exist in PC samples, while there is a much simpler magnetic phase in SC samples.

Cell fractionation

Cell fractionation GF120918 experiments revealed that DHN24 was detected in the cytosolic, nuclear and microsomal fractions. We also determined whether homologous members of the acidic subclass dehydrins from Capsicum annuum and Lycopersicon chilense share the characteristics of DHN24. We showed that they are also constitutively expressed, but their protein

level is upregulated preferentially by drought stress. Immunofluorescent localization revealed that they are detected in SEs and CCs of unstressed plants and throughout the phloem in drought-stressed plants. These results suggest that one of the primary roles of DHN24 and its homologs may be the protection of the phloem region from adverse effects of abiotic stresses.”
“This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates

seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial this website glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize

there is a critical need for S3I-201 manufacturer development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.”
“Heterozygous mutations in melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) are the most frequent genetic cause of obesity. Bariatric surgery is a successful treatment for severe obesity. The mechanisms of weight loss after bariatric surgery are not well understood.

Ninety-two patients who had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery were screened for MC4R mutations. We compared percent excess weight loss (%EWL) in the four MC4R mutation carriers with that of two control groups: 8 matched controls and with the remaining 80 patients who underwent RYGB.

Four patients were heterozygous for functionally significant MC4R mutations. In patients with MC4R mutations, the %EWL after RYGB (66% EWL) was not significantly different compared to matched controls (70% EWL) and non-matched controls (60% EWL) after 1 year of follow-up.

The RV uptake counts were compared with those for different segme

The RV uptake counts were compared with those for different segments of the LV, and multiple ratios of the uptakes between RV and LV segments were calculated. The study subjects were 23 children (age, 11.1 +/- A 3.3 years) imaged with 0.12 +/- A 0.03 mCi/kg at rest and 0.31 +/- A 0.06 mCi/kg during stress. The RV to LV uptake proportion was approximately 6%. Exercise-related uptake increased threefold in both the RV and the LV. The findings showed RV myocardial scintigraphy to be feasible with reproducible ratios. Potential clinical applications include acquired and congenital CA anomalies such as Kawasaki

disease, right CA ostium stenosis after a switch operation, and anomalous origin of the right CA.”
“Purpose: To isolate and identify the cytotoxicity of the constituents of Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate.

Methods: S. bodinieri var. delicate LY3039478 was extracted with hydrochloric acid-methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate further. The chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction

were purified by a combination of D101 macroporous resin and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The structure was characterized by H-1-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry click here (ESI-MS). Apoptosis was evaluated by fluorescence staining and Western blot analysis using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) SDS-PAGE tests in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

Results: One flavonoid with high purity selleck chemical was purified by the combination of D101 macroporous resin and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The flavonoid compound was identified as quercetin by H-1-NMR and ESI-MS analyses. DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 mu M quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate.”
“Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP)

is the most effective surgical therapy for morbid obesity. It is an advanced laparoscopic surgical procedure and has a protracted learning curve. Therefore, it is important to develop innovative ways of training and assessing surgeons. The aim of this study is to determine if a cadaveric porcine jejuno-jejunostomy model is an accurate way of assessing a surgeon’s technical skills by determining if a correlation exists with how he performs in the operating room.

Eight surgeons of varying experience performed a side-to-side stapled jejuno-jejunostomy on a cadaveric bench model before proceeding to perform the procedure on a real patient scheduled for LRYGBP. Performance was assessed using a motion tracking device, the Imperial College Surgical Assessment Device. Each procedure was recorded in video and scored by two blinded expert surgeons using procedure-specific rating scales.

bovis infection in humans Unlike transmission of M bovis from c

bovis infection in humans. Unlike transmission of M. bovis from cattle to humans, the role of human-to-human airborne transmission in the spread of M. bovis has been somewhat controversial. Investigations are needed to elucidate the relative importance of M. bovis on TB incidence in humans,

especially in developing countries. Efforts should be concentrated in countries where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is widespread, as HIV-infected individuals are more susceptible to mycobacterial Elafibranor price disease. Eradication of M. bovis in cattle and pasteurisation of dairy products are the cornerstones of the prevention of human disease.”
“Objective: Minimum radiographic joint space width (mJSW) PLX4032 supplier represents the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standard for demonstrating structural therapeutic benefits for knee osteoarthritis (KOA), but only shows moderate responsiveness (sensitivity to change). We directly compare the responsiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cartilage thickness and JSW measures from fixed-flexion radiography (FFR) and explore the correlation of region-matched changes between both methods.

Methods: Nine hundred and sixty-seven knees of Osteoarthritis Initiative

participants with radiographic KOA were studied: 445 over 1 year with coronal FLASH MRI and FFR, and 375/522 over 1/2 years with sagittal DESS MRI and FFR. Standardized response means (SRM) of cartilage thickness and mJSW were compared using the sign-test.

Results: With FLASH MRI, SRM was -0.28

for medial femorotibial compartment (MFTC) cartilage loss vs -0.15 for mJSW, and -0.32 vs -0.22 for the most sensitive MRI subregion (central MFTC) vs the most sensitive fixed-location JSW(x = 0.25). With DESS MRI, 1-year SRM was -0.34 for MFTC vs -0.22 for mJSW and -0.44 vs -0.28 for central MFTC vs JSW(x = 0.225). https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Nutlin-3.html Over 2 years, the SRM was significantly greater for MFTC than for mJSW (-0.43 vs -0.31, P = 0.017) and for central MFTC than for JSW(x = 0.225) (-0.51 vs 0.44, P < 0.001). Correlations between changes in spatially matched MRI subregions and fixed-location JSW were not consistently higher (r = 0.10-0.51) than those between non-matched locations (r = 0.15-0.50).

Conclusions: MRI displays greater responsiveness in KOA than JSW FFR-based JSW, with the greatest SRM observed in the central medial femorotibial compartment. Fixed-location radiographic measures appear not capable of determining the spatial distribution of femorotibial cartilage loss. (C) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Domestic pollution is relevant to health because people spend most of their time indoors.

The patient was treated with soft diet and medications for pain a

The patient was treated with soft diet and medications for pain and antibiotics, besides removing the implant associated with the fracture.

Conclusion: It is suggested that this procedure may be conducted in 2 operative periods: firstly, the lateralization of the inferior alveolar; and secondly, after a period of 3 months, the implant placement in a situation of more bone stability.”
“OBJECTIVES: We wanted to evaluate whether preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) could predict changes in cardiac symptoms

and postoperative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function after coronary P005091 nmr artery bypass grafting (CABG).

METHODS: Ninety-two patients with stable angina pectoris (and at least one occluded coronary artery) underwent MPS before, and 6 months after, undergoing CABG. The result of the MPS was kept secret from the surgeons.

RESULTS: Before CABG, 90% of the selleckchem patients had angina. After CABG, 97% of the patients were without symptoms. Overall graft patency was 84%. Before CABG, one patient had normal perfusion; in the rest of them the defects were classified as follows: reversible (60%), partly reversible (27%) and irreversible (12%). Following CABG, 33% had normal perfusion; in the rest the defects were reversible in 29%, partly reversible in 12% and irreversible in 26%. Left ventricular ejection fraction

(LVEF), which was normal before

operation in 45%, improved in 40% of all patients. The increase in LVEF was not related to the preoperative pattern of perfusion defects. Of 30 patients with normalized perfusion after CABG, 29 (97%) had reversible defects and one patient had partly reversible defects. Of 83 perfusion defects, which were normalized after CABG, 67 were reversible (81%) or partly reversible (12%). Seventy-five percent of all reversible coronary artery territories before CABG were normalized after operation.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that reversible or partly reversible perfusion defects at a preoperative MPS have a high chance of normalized myocardial perfusion assessed by MPS 6 months after operation. Normal perfusion is obtained almost exclusively in territories with reversible ischaemia. Symptoms improved in nearly all patients DMH1 manufacturer and LVEF in a significant fraction of the patients, not related to preoperative MPS.”
“Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is caused by a limited number of specific drugs and is characterized by late onset, infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, and herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation. Recently, the involvement of herpes viruses other than HHV-6, such as Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus, has been reported. Many approaches have been used to analyze the pathological mechanism, and have revealed new aspects of DIHS.

99 mm, the Hoffer Q and Holladay 1 for ALs from 21 00 to 21 49 mm

99 mm, the Hoffer Q and Holladay 1 for ALs from 21.00 to 21.49 mm, and the SRK/T for ALs of 27.00 mm or longer. Using optimized constants, refractive outcomes of 40%, 75%,

and 95% within +/- 0.25 diopter (D), +/- 0.50 D, and +/- 1.00 D, respectively, were achievable. Financial Disclosure: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Additional disclosure is found in the footnotes.”
“To prepare various types of multilayers, polyelectrolytes poly(acrylic acid), poly(allylamine hydrochloride), and poly(dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate) were prepared and deposited onto polypropylene nonwoven fabrics produced in the melt-blowing process. Each type of external layer deposited was dyed for identification. Utilizing the layer-by-layer method to deposit polyelectrolyte layers considerably BMS-777607 strengthens the thermal resistance of the modified fabric (the difference in T-50% is over 40 degrees C). The Selleck Apoptosis Compound Library effect is connected with the type and number of layers. Thermal effects were also observed in both dynamic and isothermal analyses under air atmosphere. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1340-1347, 2012″

Dosage of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is an important factor influencing retention in methadone treatment. MMT clients in China received lower dosages of methadone compared with those provided in other countries. The objective of this study is to elucidate the reason for the low methadone dosage prescribed in MMT clinics in China.

Methods: Twenty-eight service providers were recruited from the MMT clinics in Zhejiang and Jiangxi Provinces, China. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted to ascertain the procedure for prescribing methadone in the MMT clinics.

Results: The average dosage prescribed in the 28 clinics was 35 mg/person/day. Four major themes resulting in low dosage of methadone were identified: (1) the service providers fear the liability resulting from large closes of methadone in combination with other substances which might result in overdose fatalities, (2) lack of understanding

of harm reduction which resulted in low acceptance of the long term maintenance treatment approach, (3) break-down in communication between clients and service providers about dosage adjustment, and (4) dosage reduction is GDC-0973 in vitro perceived by most service providers as an effective way to treat the side-effects associated with MMT.

Conclusions: The findings of the study highlighted the necessity to formulate clear guidelines concerning individualized dosage management and to improve training among service providers’ in MMT clinics in China. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of the corneal power measurements by a dual Scheimpflug analyzer (Galilei) and a corneal topography system (Keratron) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in unoperated eyes.

SETTING: Private practice.

DESIGN: Case series.

Journal of Human Hypertension ( 2009) 23, 817-825; doi:10 1038/jh

Journal of Human Hypertension ( 2009) 23, 817-825; doi:10.1038/jhh.2009.28; published online 9 April 2009″
“P>Al3+-resistant cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) release malate through the Al3+-activated anion transport protein Triticum aestivum aluminum-activated malate transporter 1 (TaALMT1). Expression of TaALMT1 in Xenopus oocytes

and tobacco suspension cells enhances the basal transport activity (inward and outward currents present in the absence of external Al3+), and generates the Prexasertib clinical trial same Al3+-activated currents (reflecting the Al3+-dependent transport function) as observed in wheat cells. We investigated the amino acid residues involved in this Al3+-dependent transport activity by generating a series of mutations to the TaALMT1 protein. We targeted the acidic residues on the hydrophilic C-terminal domain of TaALMT1 and changed them to uncharged residues by site-directed mutagenesis. These mutant proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and their transport activity was measured before and after Al3+ addition. Three mutations (E274Q, D275N and E284Q) abolished the Al3+-activated transport activity without affecting the basal transport activity. Truncation of

the hydrophilic C-terminal domain abolished both basal and Al3+-activated transport activities. Al3+-dependent transport activity was recovered by fusing the N-terminal region of TaALMT1 with the C-terminal region of AtALMT1, a homolog from Arabidopsis. These findings demonstrate that the extracellular C-terminal domain is required for both basal and Al3+-dependent TaALMT1 activity. Furthermore, we identified three acidic amino acids within this domain that are specifically XR9576 required for the activation of transport function by external Al3+.”
“Seven new dammarane-type triterpenoids, including two 20(S)-hydroxy-25-methoxy-dammar-23-enes (1 and 2), two 20(S),24(R)-epoxydammaranes (3 and 4), a cabralealactone (5), and two 20(S),25-epoxydammaranes (6 and 7), together with seven known triterpenes (8-14), were isolated from the floral spikes of Betula platyphylla var. japonica. The structures for all compounds were elucidated by the analyses of extensive spectroscopic data, as well as chemical examinations.”

induces oxidative stress in salt-sensitive (SS) animals and man. It is not known whether in SS subjects the ATR inhibitor low-sodium dietary approaches to stop hypertension (LS-DASH) reduces oxidative stress more than DASH, which is high in antioxidants. To assess the effects of DASH and LS-DASH on oxidative stress, 19 volunteers were studied after 3 weeks of a standardized usual low fruits and vegetables diet (ULFV), followed by 3 weeks on DASH (both diets similar to 120 mmol Na(+) per day), then 3 weeks on LS-DASH (60 mmol Na(+) per day). SS was defined as systolic blood pressure >= 5 mm Hg lower on LS-DASH than DASH. In SS subjects (N = 9), systolic blood pressure was lower on LS-DASH (111.0 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) than DASH (118.0 +/- 2.2, P<0.01) and ULFV (122.3 +/- 2.

The subjective International Knee

Documentation Committee

The subjective International Knee

Documentation Committee (IKDC) and objective Orthopadische Arbeitsgruppe Knie (OAK) scoring systems were used to evaluate the clinical outcome.

Results: Dibutyryl-cAMP purchase Nine (41%) of the primary PCL reconstructions most likely failed because of a single factor and thirteen (59%) most likely failed because of multiple factors. The most common probable causes of failure were posterolateral rotatory instability (seventeen knees, 77%) and improper graft tunnel placement (nine knees, 41%). Side-to-side differences during posterior stress radiography improved from 9.9 +/- 2.8 mm preoperatively to 2.8 +/- 1.8 mm at the time of the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The subjective and objective clinical scores at the latest follow-up evaluation were significantly better than the preoperative scores (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Arthroscopic revision PCL reconstruction with use of the modified tibial-inlay double-bundle technique improved knee stability, as measured with posterior stress radiography and clinically, and outcomes. Associated posterolateral rotatory instability

should be surgically corrected during PCL reconstruction to prevent graft failure resulting from abnormal opening of the lateral aspect of the tibiofemoral joint.”
“Electromigration induces the flux of metal elements and causes separation of the elements in an alloy. Electromigration also possibly induces the recrystallization of metal. Nevertheless, no experimental evidence has been reported for such recrystallization behavior. We report the observation of recrystallization of dispersed Zn second phases in Sn-9Zn alloy. The GSK1120212 price Zn polycrystal of aged Sn-9Zn alloy recrystallizes under electromigration Selleckchem P005091 to form a thin prism sheet crystal of basal plane unit with (0001) preferred orientation. (c) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3174382]“
“Styrene (St)/butyl acrylate (BA) copolymers were prepared by. adding triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS), trimethoxyvinylsilane (TMVS), and triphenylvinylsilane (TPVS), each one through emulsion copolymerization. The polymerization

was performed with methacrylic acid and auxiliary agents at 80 degrees C in the presence of potassium peroxodisulfate as the initiator. Nonylphenol ethylene oxide-40 units (NP-40) and sodium lauryl sulfoacetate were used as nonionic and anionic emulsifiers, respectively. The resulting copolymers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal properties of the copolymers were Studied by using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The morphology of copolymers was also investigated by optical microscopy, and then the effects of silicone kinds and concentrations on the properties of the St/BA emulsion copolymers were discussed. The obtained copolymers have high solid content (50 %) and can be used in emulsion paints as a binder.