Thus it should easily fit into the repertoire of treatment modali

Thus it should easily fit into the repertoire of treatment modalities of people with Type 2 diabetes. Ethics approval: The Brigham Young University-Hawaii and Louisiana State University Ethics Committees approved this study. All participants gave written informed consent before data collection began. Competing interests: None declared. “
“The participation of recreational Cyclopamine datasheet runners in non-elite races (also known as ‘fun runs’) has increased steadily over the last decade. For example, one of the biggest Brazilian race organisers reported a ten-fold increase in the number of runners who registered for fun runs between 2001 and 2010 (Corpore Brasil 2011). Unfortunately,

running is not an activity without risk, and one of the likely consequences of the popularity of running is that the absolute number of injuries in this population is also growing. Not surprisingly, the number of studies measuring the prevalence or incidence of injuries in runners has also increased, especially for marathon runners (Walter et al 1989, Satterthwaite et al 1999, Chorley

et al 2002, Fredericson and Misra 2007, van Gent et al 2007, van Middelkoop et al 2008, Buist et al 2010). Most reported injuries related to recreational running are overuse or gradual onset injuries, ie, injuries caused by repeated microtrauma without a single, identifiable event (Bahr 2009, Tonoli et al 2010). The majority of the studies cited above have identified these injuries with a definition related to time lost from sporting activity. However, most overuse injuries do not result in cessation of participation in sports (Lopes et al Selleck Panobinostat 2009, Tscholl et al 2008). Recent research has indicated the importance of describing overuse injuries in terms of pain and reduced performance (Bahr 2009). As the athlete does not always

recognise symptoms as an injury, a significant number of recreational runners might unknowingly be suffering an overuse injury while still participating (Lopes STK38 et al 2009). Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of running-related musculoskeletal pain in recreational runners immediately before a race. We aimed to answer the following specific research questions: 1. What is the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in recreational runners who are about to compete in a race? We conducted a cross-sectional survey study from a convenience sample. These runners were recreational athletes preparing to compete in one of five different races in São Paulo, Brazil. In total, approximately 20 000 fun runners participated in these five races. The distance of these races ranged from 5000 to 10 000 metres. These races were chosen randomly from the fun run calendar of the city of São Paulo between August and December 2009. We aimed to survey 200 runners from each race. We included runners aged 18 years or over and we ensured that all participants completed the survey only once. The data were collected 2 hours or less before the start of each race.

AREB members did acknowledge the promising results of a new intra

AREB members did acknowledge the promising results of a new intradermal (ID) PEP regimen, “one week, 4-site”, developed by the Thai Red Cross and the Queen Saovabha Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand; it can be completed within one week (4-site ID injections on days 0, 3, and 7). One study investigating this protocol reported the geometric mean titre of rabies neutralizing antibodies on days 14 and 28 as being

significantly higher than with the WHO approved and widely used updated Thai Red Cross (TRC) regimen (2-site ID injections on each of days 0, 3 and 7, and 28). AREB members recognized that reducing the number of clinic visits and shortening the time to complete the PEP vaccination schedule would not only reduce SCH772984 solubility dmso costs for the patient

but might also help increase compliance with the complete course of PEP. It was recommended that the results be validated by another clinical trial using the same 1-week, 4-site PEP regimen in an independent centre before this regimen becomes an acceptable recommendation. Intradermal (ID) rabies vaccination has been utilized in Thailand since it was approved in 1988. A comparison was presented of the different mechanisms involved in the immune response after ID or intramuscular (IM) vaccination. ID vaccine administration delivers antigen to a compartment rich in dendritic cells, i.e. antigen-presenting cells. They capture the antigen and migrate to the draining lymph nodes, where T and B cells are triggered into action. A comparison of cytokine see more expression after IM

or ID vaccination, using a cytokine antibody microarray, showed that ID vaccination induces significant levels of IL-5, IL-6, indicating that the ID regimen induces a Th2 immune response, i.e. a preferential production of antibodies. IM vaccination Adenylyl cyclase induces higher levels of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF and favors a Th1 response, i.e. cell-mediated immunity. Such mechanisms could explain why a lower dose of rabies antigen is effective when vaccinating by the ID route compared to the IM route. AREB members stressed the necessity of ensuring that each patient receives at least the minimum amount of antigen required to induce an adequate immune response, independently of the type of modern rabies vaccine used and the volume of diluent used to reconstitute it. They noted that this approach is taken for other vaccines used to protect human health. They thus consider that the ID dose must be pharmaceutically defined by its potency (IU/ID dose), and not only by its volume, which is currently the recommendation in international guidelines. This requires defining a standardized and reproducible measure of the potency, as recommended by biological standardization committees.

The recommended frequency of 2 to 3 sessions per week was

The recommended frequency of 2 to 3 sessions per week was

not adhered to for some participants for reasons such as public holidays, caring for family members, and feeling unwell. Nevertheless, meaningful differences in some parameters were demonstrated between the groups, as well as within each group, similar to those observed in other studies of longer duration. These included improvements in waist circumference and peak oxygen consumption (Vincent et al 2003) and reduction in HbA1c (Boule et al 2003, Boule et al 2001). As our inclusion criteria included a baseline HbA1c of 8% to 10%, NLG919 price the absence of exercise training would have required an escalation of medical management. Thus, a non-intervention control group was excluded. Though this limits our ability to assess the true benefits of exercise, it was not the aim of the study since the benefits of exercise for Type 2 diabetes mellitus are well established. eAddenda: Table 4 available at Ethics: The study was approved by Singapore General Hospital

(SGH) Institutional Review Board (IRB 253/2002). All participants provided informed consent before data collection began. Competing interests: Nil Support: National Medical Research Council of Singapore ( NMRC/0728/2003). Selleck Talazoparib Abbott Laboratories (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. for supplying the Optium™glucose meter, lancets, and glucose strips for daily monitoring of participants

Bumetanide blood glucose level. “
“The primary reason for admission to an intensive care unit is the need for mechanical ventilation (Tobin 2001). Weaning from mechanical ventilation often accounts for a large proportion of the total time spent on the ventilator (Esteban et al 1994) and respiratory muscle weakness is a major determinant of failure to wean (Ambrosino 2005). Failure to wean increases the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia and further respiratory muscle deconditioning (Epstein 2006). With ageing, lung elastic recoil, chest wall compliance, and respiratory muscle strength all decrease, with resultant changes in static lung volumes and regional ventilation (Kim and Sapienza 2005, Krieg et al 2007). Therefore interventions to improve the success of weaning, especially those targeting respiratory muscle strength, may be particularly important in the older population. Inspiratory muscle strength and the index of Tobin are recognised as predictors of the success of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation (Meade et al 2001). Maximal inspiratory pressure is used widely as a test of inspiratory muscle strength (Green et al 2002). The index of Tobin is the ratio of respiratory frequency to tidal volume (Yang and Tobin 1991); it therefore quantifies the degree to which the breathing pattern is fast and shallow.

Study selection is reported according to PRISMA guidelines 33 Des

Study selection is reported according to PRISMA guidelines.33 Design • randomised trial Population • women with breast cancer diagnosis with or at risk of developing lymphoedema Intervention • weight-training exercises Outcomes • lymphoedema onset or exacerbation Comparison • sham exercise The quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale,34 which consists of 11 items that address external validity, risk of bias (internal validity) and interpretability. Although there are 11 items, the first item does not contribute to the total score because it is related

to external validity. The overall score is therefore calculated as the number of the remaining 10 items that the study achieves. Considering the nature of intervention studied in the included papers, blinding of participants and therapists this website would be impractical, so scores above eight would not be anticipated. The PEDro scale can detect potential bias with fair to good reliability34 and is a valid measure of methodological quality of trials.35 Only randomised trials were included in the review because they eliminate more sources

of potential bias than other study designs. The publication year to post 2001 was limited due to advances in the management of breast Volasertib chemical structure cancer. This review included studies of women of any age who had or were at risk of developing lymphoedema during or following breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer treatment was defined as any type of breast surgery, along with one of the following procedures to the axilla: axillary lymph node dissection, axillary lymph node sampling or sentinel lymph mafosfamide node dissection with or without radiotherapy to the breast and/or axilla. Studies involving women with lymphoedema following local recurrence or metastasis were excluded. To be eligible for this review, trials were required to have studied the effects of weight training or resistance exercises. Studies with mixed exercises (apart from warm-up and cool-down), which could possibly moderate the effect of weight training, were not considered for inclusion. The

above-mentioned intervention was required to have been assessed against no intervention or against any of the control interventions listed in Box 1. The primary outcome was BCRL, analysed as either the incidence or severity of lymphoedema identified by comparing the volume difference between the operated-on and contralateral arms. Volume could be measured directly using the water displacement method or non-invasive optoelectronic scanning (ie, perometry), or calculated from a series of circumferential measurements using a measuring tape. Additionally, studies that used a simple circumference measurement of the arm were also considered for this review. The reported difference could either be absolute or relative. Absolute volume difference is the change of arm volume on the operated side, and relative change is the volume difference between the operated-on and contralateral arms.

4 ± 0 8 months vs 2 1 ± 0 2 months; p = 0 002), second dose (4 6

4 ± 0.8 months vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 months; p = 0.002), second dose (4.6 ± 0.9 months vs. 4.2 ± 0.3 months; p = 0.001) and third dose (6.9 ± 1.2 months vs. 6.2 ± 0.4 months; p < 0.001) of the tetanus vaccine in comparison to the full-term infants. The tetanus booster dose was administered at a mean age of 15.2 ± 0.3 months. The percentage of infants with optimal protective humoral immunity was

similar in both groups prior to and following vaccination (Table 2). Among infants with minimal humoral immunity for tetanus at 15 months, a greater percentage Ribociclib cost of them had been breastfed for less than six months (37% vs. 17%; p = 0.026). Geometric mean of the anti-tetanus antibody levels was lower in the premature infants at 15 months (0.147 ± 0.2 vs. 0.205 ± 0.3; p = 0.025) and similar in both groups at 18 months (1.997 ± 2.2 vs. 1.867 ± 2.5; p = 0.852). Regarding cellular immunity, the percentages of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells expressing intracellular interferon-gamma were similar in both groups at pre-booster and 3 months post-booster

(Table 3). Multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine an association between demographic/clinical factors and humoral immune response to anti-tetanus vaccination. The following R428 molecular weight independent variables were incorporated into all regression models: use of at least one cycle of antenatal corticosteroids; gestational age <32 weeks; small for gestational age; clinical severity score assessed by SNAPPE II; need for erythrocyte transfusions; BMI; and breastfeeding for more than six months. After controlling for these variables, the final linear regression model showed that having been born at a gestational age of less than 32 weeks was associated with a reduction of −0.116 IU/mL (95% CI: −0.219 to −0.014; p = 0.027) in the level

of antibodies and breastfeeding for more than six months was associated with an increase of 0.956 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.080–1.832; p = 0.033) in the level of antibodies after booster dose. Likewise, after controlling for the same variables, the logistic regression revealed that breastfeeding for more than six months was associated with a 3.455-fold (95% CI: 1.271–9.395; p = 0.015) greater chance of having optimal protective antibody Cell press level (≥0.1 IU/mL) against tetanus at 15 months when compared to breastfeeding for less than six months. In the present study, the proportion of children with minimal protective (≥0.01–≤0.09 IU/mL) antibody levels and potentially susceptible to tetanus was similar between groups at 15 months of age. However, mean anti-tetanus antibody levels were lower among the premature infants at 15 months of age in comparison to the full-term infants. This finding is important, as delayed vaccination is more common among infants born prematurely, when compared to the general population, which may lead some of these children to become more susceptible to tetanus [17].

Thus PLS-DA model provides excellent separation among the sample

Thus PLS-DA model provides excellent separation among the sample varieties. The study

has developed and optimized a convenient, high-throughput, and reliable UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method to analyze morphologically same parts of S. asoca, which can be used further for analysis and evaluation of complex herbal medicines. It also demonstrates that PCA and PLS-DA can be used as a powerful tool for profiling and differentiation of phytochemical compositions among different kinds of Fulvestrant manufacturer herbal samples. The non-identified and most abundantly present marker compounds accountable for the different metabolite profiles of different parts of S. asoca were observed which provides fingerprints for the authentication of plant parts. Overall, work can be utilized for the evaluation of quality of medicinal herbs having significance in the pharmacological and clinical investigation. All authors have none to declare. “
“Heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that helps in proper folding of proteins and is one of the most abundant proteins expressed in cells. It represents a highly conserved class of proteins and is ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone with ATPase activity involved in the conformational maturation and stability of key signaling molecules (C-RAF, CDK2, AKT, steroid hormone receptors, mutant p53, HIF-1α) involved in cell proliferation, survival, and transformation PI3K inhibitor [Fig. 1].1 In stress

conditions, HSP90 protect cell from heat. In normal

conditions Hsp90 will help for protein folding, stabling and degradation of damage proteins and cause cancer.2 and 3 In unstress condition Hsp90 (1–2% of total protein) acts as a general protective chaperone. In stressed conditions (heat, heavy metals, hypoxia and acidosis), others its level is upregulated to 4–6% of cellular proteins. It does not cause cancer rather helps the stabilization of oncogenic proteins such as mutant p53. So, we need to find out the strategy so that Hsp90 function gets disrupted. In this way, those oncogenic proteins will not remain stable and will be targeted to degradation. Hsp90 is involved in regulating proteins such as ERBB2, C-RAF, CDK2, AKT, steroid hormone receptors, mutant p53, HIF-1α that are responsible for malignant transformation.4 These proteins have been found to be over expressed in cancerous cells. Inhibition of these proteins may trigger apoptosis. As, Hsp90 plays a key role in conformational maturation and stabilization of these growth factor receptors and some signaling molecules including PI3K and AKT proteins, hence inhibition of Hsp90 may induce apoptosis through inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and growth factor signaling.5 Therefore, modulation of this single drug target offers the prospect of simultaneously inhibiting all the multiple signaling pathways and biological processes that have been implicated in the development of the malignant phenotype.

Given anti-PIV5 immunity in humans, anti-vector immunity may be a

Given anti-PIV5 immunity in humans, anti-vector immunity may be a problem. Our recent studies indicate that pre-existing immunity to PIV5 does not negatively affect immunogenicity of a PIV5-based vaccine in dogs, demonstrating that pre-existing immunity is not a concern for using PIV5

as a vector. This result is consistent with the report that neutralizing antibodies against PIV5 do not prevent PIV5 infection in mice [13]. PIV5 has been used as a platform for developing vector-based vaccines against other viruses. A single-dose PD98059 order immunization of PIV5 expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein G protects mice against lethal rabies virus challenge [14]. Additionally, a single-dose inoculation of PIV5 expressing hemagglutinin (HA) or the NP protein of influenza virus protects against lethal H5N1 challenge in mice [15] and [16]. Importantly, intranasal selleck chemical administration of PIV5 is effective for eliciting robust mucosal immune responses [17], and is therefore

ideal for vaccinating against respiratory pathogens. Since an anti-RSV-F monoclonal antibody has been used to control RSV infection, it may be possible to develop an RSV vaccine by targeting RSV-F. Although several studies have implicated the G protein in RSV disease pathogenesis [18], [19], [20] and [21], prophylactic or therapeutic treatment with a monoclonal antibody (mAb 131-2G) specific to RSV-G mediates virus clearance and decreases leukocyte trafficking and IFN-γ production in the lungs of RSV-infected mice [22], [23], [24], [25] and [26]. In this study, we have tested the efficacies of recombinant PIV5 expressing RSV-F (rPIV5-RSV-F) or RSV-G (rPIV5-RSV-G) as potential vaccines in mice. BSR-T7 cells were maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% tryptose phosphate broth (TPB), 100 IU/mL penicillin, 100 μg/mL streptomycin (1% P/S; Mediatech Inc., Manassas, VA, USA), and 400 μg/mL G418 sulfate (Mediatech, Inc.). MDBK, BHK21,

and Vero cells were maintained in the same media without TPB Astemizole or G418. To construct the plasmids for rescuing rPIV5-RSV-F or rPIV5-RSV-G, the coding sequence of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in the BH311 plasmid [27], containing GFP between HN and L of the full-length PIV5 genome, was replaced with the RSV-F or RSV-G gene, respectively. rPIV5-RSV-F and rPIV5-RSV-G were rescued as described previously [27]. PIV5, rPIV5-RSV-F and rPIV5-RSV-G were grown in MDBK cells as described previously [27]. RSV A2 and rA2-Luc (RSV A2 expressing Renilla luciferase) were grown in Vero cells as previously described [21]. Immunoprecipitation (IP) was performed as previously described [27]. A549 cells were infected with rPIV5-RSV-F or RSV A2 in 6-cm dishes. After 18–20 h, the cells were starved and metabolically labeled with 35S-Met and 35S-Cys for 3 h.

Ranking of the importance of input variables (clinical parameters

Ranking of the importance of input variables (clinical parameters and SNPs) was achieved by ranking their influence on neural network error score.

If the presence of a particular SNP or clinical variable (among the neural network’s input variables) reduced the error score, that SNP or variable can be considered to make a positive contribution to the performance of the network (ie, it is of useful predictive value). The BMES cohort consisted of 1986 individuals with follow-up phenotype data at either the 5-year, 10-year, or both visits with genotypes available (Table 2). Of the 1986 participants, check details there were 67 incident OAG cases over the full 10-year follow-up period. At baseline, the incident OAG cases were significantly older than controls Alisertib order (P < .001) and had a higher proportion of female subjects (P = .009). IOP and VCDR at the baseline visit were also significantly different between those who later developed OAG and those who did not ( Table 2), as was systolic blood pressure. These features of this cohort have been previously reported. 11 Association analysis indicates that incident OAG was associated with SNPs at 3 of the 5 loci tested (Table 3). Significant association under an allelic test was seen at rs1412892 (P = .006) at the 9p21 locus

as well as rs10483727 (P = .004) at the SIX1/SIX6 locus. Additional SNPs at 9p21 and also at TMCO1 were nominally significant but did not survive after correction for multiple comparisons. The SNPs at the 8q22 and CAV1/CAV2 loci did not Thymidine kinase show association with incident glaucoma. Adjustment for covariates under an additive genetic model showed association at the same SNPs, although only SIX1/SIX6 remained significant after correction for testing 7 SNPs (P ≤ .007) ( Table 3). When all covariates and

the 3 associated loci (TMCO1, 9p21, and SIX1/SIX6) were included in a single regression model, all variables except blood pressure contributed significantly to the model ( Table 4). The population of neural networks was used to compare the rank importance of variables in the predictive model both with and without age matching between controls and incident cases (Table 5). As expected, when not age matched, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, age, and intraocular pressure rank the highest for predicting incident OAG. The top-ranked SNP in this analysis is at the SIX1/SIX6 locus, which also showed the strongest genetic association. When cases and controls were closely age matched the rank order of variables changed, likely indicating an interaction between age and the other variable, although vertical cup-to-disc ratio and intraocular pressure are still the most predictive variables. In this situation the SNP at the TMCO1 locus was most predictive. Of note, in both analyses, all SNPs significantly associated with incident OAG under the traditional statistics contribute positively to the neural network and improve its ability to predict incident OAG.

At the end of the experiment, cells were

At the end of the experiment, cells were NSC 683864 concentration lysed in 1% SDS and the released radioactivity was quantified by liquid scintillation counting. The release of [3H] labelled substrate was expressed as fractional rate (i.e., the radioactivity released within one fraction was expressed as a percentage of the total radioactivity present in the cells at the beginning of that fraction). Drug-induced release was calculated by subtracting the estimated basal release from total release during the first 8 min of drug exposure and is expressed as a percentage of radioactivity in the cell at the beginning of drug exposure. Data were normalized by using cpm values with no substance present (only solvent) as 100%. IC50 values were calculated using

non-linear regression fits performed with Prism software (GraphPad 5.0, San Diego, CA, U.S.A.). Data transformed into Dixon see more plots were fitted by linear regression.

Levamisole has a pKa value of 7. Both the neutral and protonated levamisole structures were built and minimized with QSite (version 5.8, Schrödinger, LLC) using the B3LYP method applying the 6-31G∗ basis set ( Murphy et al., 2000). SERT and NET share over 90% sequence similarity with DAT. Homology models of human SERT and NET were generated with Modeller 9.12 ( Sali and Blundell, 1993) using the validated human DAT model in the outward facing conformation ( Stockner et al., 2013) as template. The best model out of the 250 generated was used for further studies. The models of SERT, DAT and NET were energy minimized with Molecular Operating Environment ( MOE, 2012) applying the CHARMM22 forcefield ( Brooks et al., 2009) and using position restrains of 100 kcal/mol on the backbone. The induced fit docking found protocol of the Schrödinger package was used for ligand docking into the central binding site (Glide version 5.8, Schrödinger, LLC, New York) using standard parameter setting (Sherman et al., 2005). The neutral and the protonated form of levamisole were docked as fully flexible molecules. The protonatable nitrogen of levamisole was constrained to interact with the central aspartate in the binding side, because the positive amine functional group of the

endogenous substrates of SERT, DAT and NET has been shown to interact with the respective residue. Conformations of amino acid side chains within 6 Å distance to the ligand were optimized in the OPLS-AA 2005 force field after docking. Default energy levels were employed for selection and filtering of the poses. The pKa value of aminorex is 7.4. Both, neutral and protonated form of aminorex were docked using the same methods as for above levamisole. In 2012, 104 drug samples were obtained from drug users participating voluntarily and anonymously in the ‘checkit!’ program which were originally purchased as “cocaine”. We included all samples in our study and analyzed them by LC–MS. Two samples contained pure cocaine whereas seven samples were completely devoid of cocaine.

, 2007 and Chwang et al , 2007; Carter S D , Mifsud K R & Reul J

, 2007 and Chwang et al., 2007; Carter S.D., Mifsud K.R. & Reul J.M.H.M., unpublished observations). These observations are commensurate with the normal physiology of the dentate gyrus, i.e. the NMDA receptor-mediated sparse activation of mature dentate neurons after a challenge. Therefore, we have previously hypothesized (Reul, 2014 and Reul et al., 2009) that the observed signaling and epigenetic changes are taking place in neurons involved in a process called pattern separation (Treves and Rolls, 1994 and Rolls and Kesner, 2006); a physiological process which is thought to be required for sensory information processing in the dentate gyrus and memory formation.

Other researchers and we have indeed shown that various click here constituents of the NMDA/ERK1/2/MSK1/2–Elk-1 check details pathway are required for memory formation in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and the forced swim test (Gutierrez-Mecinas

et al., 2011, Chandramohan et al., 2008 and Chwang et al., 2007). Several research groups have shown that the NMDA receptor and the MAPK pathway are critical for learning in these tests (Chandramohan et al., 2008 and Chwang et al., 2007). David Sweatt and colleagues reported that MSK1 gene deleted mice are impaired in the Morris water maze and contextual fear conditioning paradigms (Chwang et al., 2007). We reported that Metalloexopeptidase the behavioral immobility response in the forced swim test is gravely disturbed in MSK1/2 double gene knock-out mice (Chandramohan et al., 2008). Furthermore, in a series of pharmacological and neuroanatomical studies we found that inhibition of any step of the NMDA/ERK1/2/MSK1/2–Elk-1

pathway in dentate gyrus neurons resulted in a significant reduction in the IEG response and an impaired behavioral immobility response (Gutierrez-Mecinas et al., 2011 and Chandramohan et al., 2008). The activation of the previously described signaling and epigenetic pathway along with GRs at dentate gyrus neurons is involved in the consolidation of the behavioral immobility response. The question arose how these two pathways are involved in establishing this behavioral response. An important lead was provided by the observation that administration of a GR antagonist before forced swimming resulted in a strongly diminished c-Fos and Egr-1 response in dentate neurons (Gutierrez-Mecinas et al., 2011). Moreover, the antagonist also inhibited the stress-induced responses in pMSK1/2 and pElk1/2 in these neurons but did not affect the pERK1/2 response (Gutierrez-Mecinas et al., 2011). Based on these observations we postulated that in the forced swim situation, activated GRs, through interaction with pERK1/2, facilitate the phosphorylation of MSK1/2 and Elk-1, which was indeed confirmed by co-immuno-precipitation experiments (Gutierrez-Mecinas et al., 2011).