The remaining lysate was digested extensively with nucleases and proteinase K and dialysed (2000 molecular-weight cut-off) against water to remove small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. The dialysed lysates were subjected to methanolysis and derivatized with the HMDS + TMCS + pyridine, 3 : 1 : 9 (Sylon™ HTP) Kit (Sigma). Volumes equivalent to 100 μg of protein were analysed by GC/MS with an Smad inhibitor Agilent Technologies 6890N Network GC System and a 5973 Network Mass Selective Detector with MSD Productivity Chemstation Software Rev. D.00.00. The amount of EPS-I was calculated from the area under the major
galactose peak, with comparison to galactose standards of known amount. We investigated whether the production of EPS-I was involved with the ability of M. pulmonis to avoid binding to alveolar macrophages and to be killed (Fig. 1). Significantly more CTG1701, which lacks EPS-I, bound to macrophages than did CTG38 or the complemented CTG1701-C (Fig. 1a) (P < 0.001).
By avoiding binding, and hence subsequent phagocytosis, EPS-I is antiphagocytic. Surprisingly, more CTG38 was bound by macrophages than was CTG1701-C (P < 0.001). Once the mycoplasmas were bound to the macrophages, there was no significant difference in the survival of bound CTG38 and CTG1701 at any time point (Fig. 1b). However, CTG1701-C survived significantly better at 8 h than did CTG38 and CTG1701 (P < 0.006). The difference between CTG38 and CTG1701-C in regard to binding to macrophages and subsequent killing was unexpected given that these two strains possess identical click here Vsa proteins and have no known differences other than the original mutation that disrupted MYPU_7410 and its complementation. We had noted in three separate experiments Exoribonuclease using three different media that the yield of EPS-I from CTG1701-C was relatively high. The amount of EPS-I associated with CTG38
and CTG1701-C was quantitated by GC/MS, by assaying equivalent amounts of lysate as determined by protein concentration. CTG38 and CTG1701-C had 24 and 123 ng EPS-I μg−1 protein, respectively, indicating a fivefold difference in the amount of polysaccharide. Depending on the medium and other culture conditions, there is a high degree of variability in the amount of mannose glycosides, detected by GC/MS, in M. pulmonis lysates. These results suggested that the mycoplasma is proficient at binding mannosylated molecules. Many such molecules would be encountered in the host and might affect phagocytosis. Although yeast extract is not present in the murine host, its mannosylated cell wall proteins might interact with the mycoplasma in a similar fashion as mannosylated host proteins. The addition of yeast extract to the assay buffer led to a significant increase in killing by alveolar macrophages for all three strains of mycoplasma, but CTG1701-C still survived significantly better at 8 h than did CTG38 and CTG1701 (Fig. 2).