Structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of the

Structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data (NMR, MS, IR spectra and COSY

and HR-MS for 5a). The antioxidant activity of the total extracts, Selleck MAPK inhibitor petroleum ether, CH2Cl2 and EtOAc fractions together with the compounds 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 was comparable with that of the standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid.”
“Background : In vitro experimental studies have reported that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) stimulates the production of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in porcine valves. However, the relation between TGF-beta 1 and alpha-SMA in myxomatous valves has not been elucidated. Methods : We classified 27 subjects into two groups: 1) myxomatous group (11:12, mean age=55 +/- 15 years) and 2) rheumatic group (M:F=3:1 mean age=41 +/- 17 years) according to preoperative echocardiographic and postoperative histologic findings. Twenty-seven valve specimens from the patients who underwent valve replacement were obtained. Tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry

for TGF-beta 1 and alpha-SMA. The positively stained areas were measured using an image analysis program (image Pro-Plus 4.5), and then the TGF-beta 1 volume fraction (TGF-VF) and alpha-SMA this website volume fraction (alpha-Si were calculated. Results : TGF-VF in myxomatous valves was higher than in rheumatic valves (2,759 +/- 2,294 vs 864 +/- 276, p=0.04). alpha-SMA-VF in myxomatous valves was higher than in rheumatic valves (4,122 +/- 2,275 vs 2,421 +/- 844, p=0.002). There was a significant correlation between TGF-beta 1 and alpha-SMA in myxomatous valves (r=0.38, p=0.04). There was no significant correlation between TGF-beta 1 and alpha-SMA in rheumatic valves (r=0.50, p=0.67). Conclusions : TGF-beta 1 and alpha-SIMA may be related to the pathogenesis of myxomatous valves. The activation of TGF-beta 1 might increase the expression of alpha-SMA in human myxomatous valves.”
“BACKGROUND

Fractional https://www.selleckchem.com/ALK.html resurfacing is a new laser treatment used mainly for treating photoaging and acne scars.

OBJECTIVE

To

demonstrate the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) fractional resurfacing laser treatment using high-resolution ultrasound imaging and to evaluate factors predictive of response to the treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A prospective observational study was undertaken from January 2007 to August 2009. Laser treatment was performed using a CO(2) fractional resurfacing device. Patients were offered high-resolution ultrasound imaging to follow up their treatment. Dermal and subepidermal nonechogenic band (SENEB) thicknesses were measured.

RESULTS

Twenty-four consecutive patients were included, allowing follow-up of 107 areas. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in dermal thickness (mean variation +25.1%, (95% confidence interval=19.0-31.2). SENEB thickness was not changed.

Erect penile length consequent to IPP implantation was measured a

Erect penile length consequent to IPP implantation was measured at 6 weeks, 6 months and at 1 year after surgery. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) was administered before, and at 6 months and 1 year after IPP implantation. Erect Selleckchem HDAC inhibitor penile length (mean +/- s.e.) as induced by ICI was 13.2 +/- 0.4 cm, whereas the lengths attained with IPP were 12.4 +/- 0.3, 12.5 +/- 0.3 and 12.5 +/- 0.4 cm at the sixth week, sixth month and 1-year follow-ups, respectively. There were 0.83 +/- 0.25, 0.75 +/- 0.20 and 0.74 +/- 0.15 cm decreases in erect penile length at

6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year, respectively, after IPP implantation when compared with that after ICI (P < 0.05). The SHIM scores for patients SBE-β-CD reporting shorter penises were the same as those for patients without complaints at the 6-month and 1-year follow-ups (P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to objectively show a significant decrease in erect penile length after IPP implantation when compared

with that after ICI. However, this decrease did not affect the effectiveness of IPP in treating ED.”
“Not only is there limited information in the literature regarding the beta-carotene (BC) isomer profile of micelles from digested foods; few studies have looked at their subsequent uptake and transport by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Therefore, the aims of the present study were, first, to assess the profile of BC isomers in micelles from digested raw and cooked carrots; and, second, to determine their cellular uptake and transport. Greater amounts of all-trans-, 13-cis- and 15-cis-BC isomers were present in the micelles of NVP-BSK805 cooked carrots compared with raw carrots. Furthermore, micelle fractions obtained from the most highly processed (pureed) carrots had greater (P < 0.05) amounts of all-trans-, 13-cis- and 15-cis-BC compared with those derived from raw and boiled carrots. A similar trend was seen with BC isomer uptake and transport. Our data suggest that the food matrix and degree of processing play important

roles on carotenoid isomerization and bioavailability. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims and Methods: The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the characteristics of escape rhythms at predefined serial time intervals following AV node ablation and pacemaker implantation, and (2) to identify risk factors predictive of unstable escape rhythms. Patients undergoing AV node ablation and pacemaker implantation were assessed for the presence or absence of an escape rhythm during pacemaker interrogation at five predetermined serial time points. Baseline demographics and comorbid conditions were evaluated as potential predictors of those with labile escape rhythms.

Results: Seventy-nine percent of the 96 patients studied had an underlying escape rhythm (>= 30 beats per minute) immediately postablation.

UV-vis, transmission electron microscope, and laser scattering an

UV-vis, transmission electron microscope, and laser scattering analyses were used to characterize the bimetallic alloy DENs. The regioselective synthesis of multifunctional hybrid poly(methylhydro)siloxane was achieved by the RuRh and RuPt alloy nanoparticle catalysts. The experimental results showed that the RuRh and RuPt bimetallic DENs presented

higher catalytic activity than physical mixtures of their Cell Cycle inhibitor monometallic DENs, respectively. This should be due to synergistic electronic effect of RuRh and RuPt alloy catalysts. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 334-341, 2011″
“The FePt films were deposited with [Fe/Pt](n) multilayer structure on preheated Corning 1737F glass substrate using pure Fe and Pt target in a CMS-18 sputtering system. The dependence of FePt’s texture and magnetic properties on the multilayer structure was investigated. The XRD patterns indicate that (111) texture is dominant for all [Fe/Pt] n (n 8, 16, 20, 32) multilayer films. However, the measured M-H loops show that the perpendicular anisotropy is greatly enhanced in samples with n 16, 20, and 32. The origin of the increased perpendicular anisotropy of [Fe/Pt] n multilayer films is related to the contributions

of the interfaces, which will be analyzed using the micromagnetic models, with careful discussions of learn more the crystalline and interface anisotropies. Finally, it is confirmed that the Fe/Pt interfaces favor the perpendicular orientation in the multilayer structure. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3564952]“
“The incidence of well-differentiated Bafilomycin A1 mw thyroid cancer has seen a worldwide increase in the last three decades. Whether this is due to a ‘true increase’ in incidence or simply increased detection of otherwise subclinical disease remains unclear. The treatment of thyroid cancer revolves around appropriate surgical intervention, minimising complications and the use of adjuvant therapy

in select circumstances. Prognostic features and risk stratification are crucial in determining the appropriate treatment. There continues to be considerable debate in several aspects of management in these patients. Level 1 evidence is lacking, and there are limited prospective data to direct therapy, hence limiting decision-making to retrospective analyses, treatment guidelines based on expert opinion and personal philosophies. This overview focuses on the major issues associated with the investigation of thyroid nodules and the extent of surgery. As overall survival in well-differentiated thyroid cancer exceeds 95%, it is important to reduce over-treating the large majority of patients, and focus limited resources on high-risk patients who require aggressive treatment and closer attention.

6 as the criterion for inclusion as a corroborative attribute pro

6 as the criterion for inclusion as a corroborative attribute processed by find more the SVM classification model. The latter used a Gaussian radial-basis-function

(RBF) kernel and the error penalty factor C was fixed to 1. A two-fold cross-validation resampling technique was employed.

Results: A total of 41 patients had 115 defibrillation instances. AMSA, slope and RMS waveform metrics performed test validation with AUC > 0.6 for predicting termination of VF and return-to-organised rhythm. Predictive accuracy of the optimised SVM design for termination of VF was 81.9% (+/-1.24 SD); positive and negative predictivity were respectively 84.3% (+/-1.98 SD) and 77.4% (+/-1.24 SD); sensitivity and specificity were 87.6% (+/-2.69 SD) and 71.6% (+/-9.38 SD) respectively.

Conclusions: AMSA, slope and RMS were the best VF waveform frequency-time parameters predictors of termination of VF according to test validity assessment. This a priori can be used for a simplified SVM optimised design that combines the predictive attributes of these VF waveform metrics for improved prediction accuracy and generalisation performance without requiring the definition of any threshold value on

waveform metrics. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: Ejection force of the fetal cardiac ventricles selleck chemicals has previously been described from 18 weeks of gestation. We aimed to establish gestation-specific reference intervals for ventricular ejection force (VEF) from 12 to 40 weeks of pregnancy.

Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional observational study of singleton pregnancies, examinations were performed in 236 women evenly distributed across each week of pregnancy from 12 to 40 weeks. Each mother was scanned once. For the aortic and pulmonary valves, the time to peak velocity (TPV) and the average (TAV) and

peak flow velocity in systole (PSV) was measured. For each we averaged values from three consecutive complexes. The outlet valve diameters were measured and the VEF on both the right and left sides were calculated using the formula ARN-509 research buy VEF = (1.055 x valve area x time to peak velocity x TAV) x (PSV/TPV) where 1.055 represents the density of blood. Measurements were repeated in 40 women to assess intraobserver reproducibility and in 19 women for interobserver variability.

Results: We present reference intervals for right and left VEF. We demonstrated that the ventricular force on both right and left sides increases with advancing gestational age.

Conclusion: Fetal cardiac physiology can be studied and Doppler indices reliably measured as early as the late first trimester of pregnancy. Ventricular ejection force and its relationship with fetal growth could be explored in future studies and this may eventually provide better understanding of changes which may predispose to adult cardiac disease.

1%, 8 9% and

1%, 8.9% and VS-6063 research buy 17.3%. Exclusive breastfeeding for >= 4 months vs. < 4 months was associated with a lower prevalence of asthma. The duration of breastfeeding, regardless of exclusivity, for >= 6 months tended to be associated with a lower prevalence of asthma. There was no appreciable association between breastfeeding and wheeze or eczema.

CONCLUSIONS: Data from this study indicate that breastfceding may be associated with a lower prevalence of asthma among young Japanese children.”
“An association of melanocytic nevus with eccrine

glands has been well-documented and well-known as eccrine-centered nevus. Non-giant congenital nevi sometimes contain angiocentric and/or adnexocentric growth of nevus cells. Blood vessels are the most prominent site of nevus cell infiltration and propagation. In our specimen, Z-IETD-FMK the second was eccrine ducts. These selective sites of infiltration gave rise to a linear pattern of nevus cell distribution. Upon cursory examination at low magnification, vascular pathologies such as lymphocytic perivasculitis and

particularly coat-sleeve-like pattern of erythema annulare centrifugum were suggested. S-100 immunostained perivascular and periductal lymphocytoid cells while CD3, 4 and 8 for T cells, and CD20 and 79a for B cells, were all negative. S-100 detected some invasive behavior of nevus cells penetrating into the vascular and ductal walls. However, Ki-67 was negative in all cells, suggesting a benign nature of this lesion. It is postulated that intradermal nevus cells of fetal skin freely migrate through mesenchymal tissue and stop when they hit barriers such as blood vessels and eccrine ducts and propagate in situ. How does this random migration theory explain the blood vessels and eccrine ducts getting the largest share of nevus cells? It is because they are the largest barriers of fetal dermis.”
“BACKGROUND: Growth kinetics of Pichia pastoris and heterologous expression of Trametes versicolor laccase were compared. This is the first study of its kind between

solid-state yeast cultures done on polyurethane Elafibranor order foam (PUF) and submerged liquid fermentations (SmF).

RESULTS: The maximum values of biomass were similar for SSF (solid-state fermentation) and SmF experiments when the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) was lower than 1009 L(-1). For higher BOD levels, the maximum values of biomass were 55 g L(-1) (SSF) and 35 g L(-1) (SmF). Micrographs of PUF preparations showed yeast growing within liquid lamellae, thinner than 100 forming large horizontal aggregates. Yeast aggregates were much smaller in SmF than in SSF experiments; however, laccase expression was lower in PUF than in SmF, unless the methanol concentration was increased to 639 L(-1), which was inhibitory only to the SmF system.

Of those who underwent subsequent ICEPS, only those with data ava

Of those who underwent subsequent ICEPS, only those with data available to compare accessory pathway (AP) conduction during ICEPS and TEEPS were included. Results: Of 65 patients who underwent TEEPS, 42 were found to have an indication for ablation. The most common

indication for ICEPS was AZD1208 clinical trial inducible SVT, which was induced in 67% of patients. Of 42 patients who underwent subsequent ICEPS, 23 had sufficient data for comparison of AP conduction between ICEPS and TEEPS. There was no difference between the baseline minimum 1:1 antegrade conduction through the accessory pathway found at TEEPS versus ICEPS (312 +/- 51 ms vs 316 +/- 66 ms, P = 0.5). There was no significant difference between the baseline antegrade AP-effective refractory period found at TEEPS versus ICEPS (308 +/- 34 ms vs 297 +/- 37 ms, P = 0.07). There were no complications related to TEEPS or ICEPS. Conclusion: TEEPS is a safe and feasible alternative to ICEPS for risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic WPW and should be considered before ICEPS and ablation. (PACE 2012; 15)”
“Aims: Sapanisertib mouse The delineation of target volumes has been radiation oncologist led. If radiation therapists were to undertake this task, work processes may be more efficient and the skills set of radiation therapy staff broadened. This study was undertaken to quantify interobserver variability of breast target volumes between radiation

oncologists and radiation therapists.

Materials and methods: The planning computed tomography datasets of 30 patients undergoing tangential breast radiotherapy were utilised. Four radiation oncologists and four radiation therapists independently contoured the clinical target volume (CTV)

of the breast on planning computed tomography using a written protocol. The mean CTV volumes Napabucasin datasheet and the mean distance between centres of volume (COV) were determined for both groups to determine intergroup variation. Each of the radiation oncologists’ readings in turn has been used as the gold standard and compared with that of the radiation therapists. The concordance index for each patient’s CTV was determined relative to the gold standard for each group. A paired t-test was used for statistical comparison between the groups. An intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to measure the agreement between the radiation oncologist and radiation therapist groups.

Results: The mean concordance index was 0.81 for radiation oncologists and 0.84 for radiation therapists. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the mean volume was 0.995 (95% confidence interval 0.981-0.998) between radiation oncologist- and radiation therapist-contoured volumes. The intraclass correlation for the mean difference between radiation oncologists’ and radiation therapists’ COV was 0.999 (95% confidence interval 0.999-1.000).

They need not be powered to detect heterogeneity of treatment eff

They need not be powered to detect heterogeneity of treatment effect. They emphasize estimation and reporting of subgroup effects rather than hypothesis testing. Sampling properties (e.g., standard error) of descriptive analysis can be characterized, thus facilitating meta-analysis of subgroup effects. Predictive heterogeneity of treatment effect analyses estimate probabilities of beneficial and adverse responses

of individuals to treatments and facilitates optimal treatment decisions for different types of individuals. Procedures are also suggested to improve reliability of heterogeneity of treatment BML-275 2HCl effect assessment from observational studies.

Heterogeneity of treatment effect analysis should be identified as confirmatory, descriptive, exploratory, or predictive analysis. Evidence should be interpreted in a manner consistent with the analytic goal. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To assess the effect of an educational intervention on pharmacists’

attitudes and knowledge about medication disposal.

Methods: In September 2005, a survey was mailed to 488 registered pharmacists serving as experiential education preceptors to Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences students in check details 27 states throughout the country. Mailing of this presurvey occurred 2 months before an educational intervention. An identical postsurvey was mailed to the 223 respondents to the presurvey 3 months after the intervention. The main outcome measure was change in pharmacist attitudes and knowledge about

medication disposal after educational intervention.

Results: 158 pharmacists (32% response rate) completed the pre- and postsurveys. Before the intervention, 47% of pharmacists perceived inappropriate medication disposal to be an environmental problem compared with 57% after the intervention (P = 0.03). Similarly, when asked about medication disposal, 10% correctly indicated BIIB057 purchase that patients could arrange for hazardous waste pick up compared with 20% postintervention (P < 0.01). Conversely, 19% incorrectly indicated that patients should wash medications down the sink compared with 5.6% postintervention (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: A brief educational intervention is effective at changing pharmacists’ attitudes and knowledge of inappropriate and environmentally unsafe medication disposal practices. Pharmacists receiving the educational intervention were more likely to report that they would recommend appropriate methods of medication disposal. Further educational efforts are necessary for improving pharmacists’ knowledge regarding safe medication disposal practices.

Further investigation is needed

to identify preoperative

Further investigation is needed

to identify preoperative predictors that will assist the selection of patients who will benefit from revision lumbar fusion.”
“To evaluate the efficacy of stent placement in the treatment of portal vein (PV) stenosis or occlusion in living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients, 468 LDLT records were reviewed. Sixteen (10 PV occlusions and 6 stenoses) recipients (age range, 8 months-59 years) were referred for possible interventional angioplasty (dilatation and/or stent) procedures. Stent placement was attempted in all. The approaches used were percutaneous transhepatic (n = 10), Quisinostat percutaneous transsplenic (n = 4), and intraoperative (n = 2). Technical success was achieved in 11 of 16 patients (68.8%). The sizes of the stents used varied from 7 mm to 10 mm in diameter. In the five unsuccessful patients, long-term complete occlusion of the PV with cavernous transformation precluded catherterization. The mean follow-up was 12 months (range, 3-24). The PV stent patency rate was 90.9% (10/11). Rethrombosis and occlusion of the stent and PV occurred in a single recipient who had a cryoperserved vascular graft to reconstruct the PV during the LDLT operation. PV occlusion of > 1 year with cavernous transformation seemed to be a factor causing technical failure. In conclusion, early treatment of PV stenosis and occlusion by

stenting is an effective treatment in LDLT. Percutaneous transhepatic and transsplenic, and intraoperative techniques are effective approaches depending on the selleck chemicals llc situation.”
“To determine the effects of alpha-blocker, extracorporeal magnetic innervations (ExMI) alone and combination treatment on female bladder outlet obstruction (BOO).

Sixty women with BOO were divided into three groups according to the treatment. After 3 months, the clinical outcomes were evaluated by clinical examination, international prostatic symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), 3-day voiding diary, uroflowmetry and post-void residual.

At 3 months, symptom improvement was 52.6% in

alpha-blocker monotherapy (group I), 50.0% in ExMI monotherapy (group II), and 57.1% in combination therapy (group III). Maximum flow rate increased and total IPSS decreased significantly in all groups (p < 0.05). Storage symptom www.selleckchem.com/products/crt0066101.html subscore was more reduced in groups II and III and QOL improved significantly in group III (p < 0.05)

This study demonstrates that both alpha-blocker and ExMI were effective in female BOO, and ExMI may be more effective for improving storage symptoms.”
“Study Design. Retrospective clinical data analysis.

Objective. To investigate and verify our philosophy of spontaneous slip reduction following circumferential release via bilateral minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (Mini-TLIF) for treatment of low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis.

Summary of Background Data.

The meta-analysis of the studies with low mean power did not favo

The meta-analysis of the studies with low mean power did not favour SWD treatment for pain reduction, while the results of studies employing some thermal effect click here were significant. No treatment effect on functional performance measures was determined.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis found small, significant effects on pain and muscle performance only when SWD evoked a local thermal sensation. However, the variability in the treatment protocols makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions

about the factors determining the effectiveness of SWD treatment. More research (using comparable protocols and outcome measurements) is needed to evaluate possible long-term effects of thermal SWD treatment and its cost effectiveness in patients with KOA. (c) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A new glycoside compound (1) was isolated from the starfish Asteria amurensis Lutken. The structure for compound 1 was identified as 1-O–D-quinovopyranosyl-(1-2)–D-fucopyranosyl-(1-4)-[-D-fucopyranosyl(1-2)] for hip and knee total joint arthroplasty (TJA).

Methods: Focus groups were conducted, stratified by history of a previous TJA, in English-speaking men and women aged 40+ years with moderate to severe hip and knee osteoarthritis. Participants discussed: their appropriateness for TJA; the ideal candidate; patients’ role in TJA decision making; and the relationship between appropriateness and willingness

to consider TJA. Participants self-completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, arthritis severity (Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis index – WOMAC), perceived TJA candidacy and willingness to consider TJA. Focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was performed.

Results: Eleven focus groups were conducted with 58 participants in total: mean age 72 years; 79% female; 25 (43%) with prior TJA; mean WOMAC summary score 43.1. Half reported willingness to consider TJA and 43% felt they were appropriate for TJA. Appropriateness was equated with candidacy for the procedure. Pain intensity and the ability to cope with pain were identified as the most important factors determining surgical candidacy, but felt to be inadequately evaluated by physicians. TJA appropriateness and willingness were felt to be distinct, yet related, concepts; those unwilling had stricter criteria about candidacy than those who were willing.

Conclusions: Participants equated appropriateness for TJA with surgical candidacy.

7% In 23 4% of cases, more precise anatomic information was foun

7%. In 23.4% of cases, more precise anatomic information was found that was subjectively deemed clinically meaningful. Conclusions: Our snapshot of 200 consecutive catheter cerebral angiograms shows that it is used for both primary

diagnosis and surveillance in a wide variety of indications. Despite recent imaging trends, diagnostic catheter angiography provides clinically meaningful diagnostic information in enough cases to warrant continued use.”
“In this review, we check details identify and discuss some of the genomics studies of preconditioning and the ischemic tolerance phenomenon. Such studies have been attempted in multiple species, using different array technologies and with different preconditioning and tolerance models. In addition, studies are starting to reveal epigenetic mechanisms and modifiers of tolerance ERK pathway inhibitor and preconditioning. Together these studies are starting to reveal some of the immense complexity of the ischemic tolerance phenomenon, yet further studies await to be performed.”
“Aim: We sought to investigate protein biomarkers for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in vaginal tissues using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and examine if this is a reliable methodology to examine proteins in small tissue specimens.

Material and Methods: We compared protein expression profile of vaginal tissue from women with SUI

and continent controls. A 22.6 kDa peak was identified by subsequent weak cation-exchange, reverse-phase fractionation, gel electrophoresis, and trypsin digestion, then analyzed by matrix assisted selleck screening library laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and MALDI MS-MS. Biomarker identity and expression level were confirmed by Western-blotting and immunohistochemistry.

Results: Expression of the 22.6 kDa protein, identified as SM-22 alpha, was significantly higher in women with SUI versus controls. A 3×3-mm tissue sample was sufficient for identification. Western-blot/immunohistochemistry confirmed the SELDI-TOS MS findings.

Conclusion: SM-22 alpha, a marker for myofibroblasts, was identified as a biomarker of SUI. Differential protein profiling by SELDI-TOF MS

is a powerful and reliable tool for urogynecological research as it allows us to study an array of proteins simultaneously using small tissue samples.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of Elaeis guineensis leaf against Staphylococcus aureus and to determine the effect of extract treatment on the microstructure of the microbe

Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the methanol leaf extract of the plant against S. aureus was examined using disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of S. aureus after treatment with the extract.

Results: The extract showed a good antimicrobial activity against S.