The composition and characteristics of membrane proteins of tumor cells are modified during malignant transformation and make them likely candidates for cancer biomarkers . Comparative proteomics with the recent advances are promising tools for discovering novel invasive and metastasis-associated candidate biomarkers of HCC. The current work was to identify potential membrane proteins related to HCC invasive progression, using human HCC cells with different metastasis potentials, by proteomics analysis, experimental animal studies and clinical validation.
To gain insights into potential candidate biomarkers contributing to invasion and metastasis, two well defined and unique HCC cells with multiple progressive and metastatic potentials, HCCLM9 cell with a highly lung metastasis rate 100%, and MHCC97L cell with a low lung metastasis rate 0% [12–14], were selected as our study models. Methods Cell lines and cell culture The two cloned cell BYL719 nmr lines, MHCC97L and HCCLM9, are derived from the same host cell line MHCC97, in a process of cloning culture and 9 successive in vivo pulmonary metastases selection, as described previously [1, 2]. These cells are cultured at 37°C in 5% CO2/95% air and RPMI 1640 (Sigma, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum Pevonedistat research buy (Amresco, USA). Cells are
grown to 80% confluence and passaged. Membrane proteins extraction Membrane proteins from cultured cells were extracted using ProteoExtract® subcellular proteome extraction kit (Cat. No. 539790, Merck, Germany) according to the protocol. All samples were stored at -80°C Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) After the BCA very assay (Pierce, Rockford, IL) to quantify protein concentration, equal amounts of protein were loaded onto 12% gels (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and separated by SDS-PAGE. The gels were soaked in Coomassie brilliant blue dye overnight and excess stain was then eluted with a solvent (destaining). In-gel proteolytic digestion The differential proteins band were excised manually from Coomassie brilliant blue stained gel with a disposable pipette, cut into small pieces, and transferred into
0.5 ml Eppendorf tubes. The gel pieces were destained by adding 60 μl acetonitrile/200 mM NH4HCO3 (1:1), vortexed 5 min, and centrifuged at 12,000 × g for 5 min and then the supernatant removed. This step was repeated until the gel pieces were completely destained. 60 μl acetonitrile were added, vortexed for 5 min, and centrifuged at 12,000 × g for 5 min and then the supernatant removed, this was repeated twice until the gel pieces were completely white. The gel pieces were dried, rehydrated, and incubated in 18 μl ice-cold trypsin solution (12.5 ng/mL in 0.1 M NH4HCO3) at 4°C for 20 min. The supernatant was removed and pipetted in 15 μl of the previous OSI-906 buffer without trypsin to maintain proteolytic digestion for 12 h at 37°C in a wet environment.