The minor differences between the three EMCC areas with respect

The minor differences between the three EMCC areas with respect to doctors’ responses strengthen the representativeness of the 85 municipalities and 35 out-of-hours districts. In nearly 90% of all cases we retrieved records from car and air ambulances, casualty clinics and rGPs. Together with the complete set of AMIS

forms this yields a comprehensive material for analysis of the objectives of the study. Severity score (NACA) on patients was selleck screening library assessed retrospectively based on medical records and may therefore have lower accuracy. It is also a limitation of the study that we lack access to the patients’ medical records after hospitalisation. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Analyse of the medical usefulness of having the primary care doctor at site was thus not possible. The pronounced differences between the EMCCs with respect to alerting primary care doctors on-call indicate that the opportunity to have a doctor on scene as part of the initial examination and treatment varies among the inhabitants in different geographical areas. The government wants to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have a decentralised pattern of settlement in Norway and obtaining equality in health care is a stated political goal [12]. By not alerting the doctors on-call an EMCC violates the regulation for pre-hospital emergency [3] and the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical inhabitants are not offered an equal level of medical

competency. The large majority of the patients are not in need of immediate treatment based on protocols, like cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and most patients are elderly with more complex medical symptoms and comorbidities [13]. Ambulance personnel’s formal education is two years in upper

secondary school and two years in apprenticeship [3]. However, a large group of ambulance personnel Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical does not fulfil that educational level [14]. As patients in most cases of the emergency situations have complex medical problems Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [14,15] there is need of competence based on higher education and experience when examining the patients. Compared to ambulance personnel the doctors are superior when it comes to clinical judgement and deciding treatment and level of care when the patients have a serious illness. The professions provide supplementary contributions [15] and the professions should more frequently those appear together on site. More doctors on site could possibly contribute to a reduction of transports to both casualty clinics and hospitals, thus decreasing hospitalisations and use of the ambulances. Direct transports to hospitals by the ambulance services were doubled when doctors on-call were not alerted, compared to whit if they were (table ​(table2).2). This difference indicates the important gatekeeper function by the emergency primary healthcare services. Every patient treated by the primary care services will reduced costs because the patient is treated at a lower and less costly level of care.

On admission we found pale skin and teguments, severe generalized

On admission we found pale skin and teguments, severe generalized hypotonia, macroglossia, pulmonary crackles, right basal hypoventilation and hepatomegaly. EKG and echocardiogram showed signs of biventricular hypertrophy, severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction with ejection fraction of 40%. The patient worsened rapidly and died within few hours after admission. Biochemical and molecular studies Case 1 and Case 2 had mildly elevated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical serum creatine kinase (CK) to 386 and 650 IU/L, respectively. In Case 1 alpha-glucosidase activity was decreased (1.08 nmol/L; normal range: 1.5-10 nmol/L) on dried blood spots (DBS)

tests performed at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. In Case 2 the alpha-glucosidase DBS assay performed at Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Duke University was 0.6 pmol/L, also below normal levels (normal range: 10.0- 49 pmol/L). Whole exon and exon-intron boundaries direct sequencing revealed a homozygous single base deletion c.1987delC in both cases, and the same heterozygous mutation in both parents of Case 2 (Fig. 2). This frameshift mutation implies a change of glutamine to serine at codon 663 and a new reading frame that ends after 33 base pairs, leading to the translation of a truncated protein. The families of both cases came from very small villages Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from the state of San Luis Potosí at Central Mexico within a 10-miles perimeter. Our cases’ parents shared surnames, and the same surname was repeatedly found in members of their

communities. However, they did not recognize

each other as relatives. Figure 2. Representative sequence chromatograms Lapatinib solubility dmso showing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the normal sequence (A), the homozygous single base deletion c.1987delC found in Cases 1 and 2 (B) and the sequence found in the heterozygous parents of Case 2 (C). Asterisks indicate heterozigocity. Discussion We described two unrelated cases with a severe muscle disorder that resemble the original case described by Pompe. Our cases had the same frameshift mutation and pertained to the same region of the Center of Mexico. To the best of our knowledge, this corresponds to a novel mutation associated with Pompe disease. The phenotype Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of classical early-onset Pompe cases is almost identical to that of our cases, with severe cardiomyopathy, Histone demethylase progressive muscle weakness, organomegaly and fatal outcome before the age of 1 year. A number of conditions affecting this age group may have similar findings including metabolic and non-metabolic neuromuscular disorders. A systematic multistep approach is recommended to reach a definite diagnosis, starting with a complete general and neurological examination followed by the measure of CK serum activity. Immediately after this initial approach it is suggested to store blood samples for DBS and leucocytes to perform alpha-glucosidase enzymatic assay and DNA testing as necessary. The diagnostic approach must continue through careful electrophysiological or pathological investigations.

6 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of eth

6 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of ethical considerations

in the instructions to the authors of Iranian journals of medical sciences. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on all the journals listed in the ranking file of “The Commission for Accreditation and Improvement of Iranian Medical Journals” ( in October 2011. Checklist items (n=15) were extracted from the national manual of ethics in medical research publications, which was published by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education and its Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical content validity was assessed by a panel of experts. Additionally, all the questions were checked for relevancy, clarity, and simplicity. The study focused on the instructions to the authors of Iranian journals of medical sciences. Journals were excluded if their instructions to authors were not available Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical online or if they contained no instructions to authors. “Editorial leadership” was assessed on the basis of the most current instructions to authors and editorial policy statements. Fifteen parameters were scored as mentioned or not mentioned: “aim and scope”; “editorial freedom”; “authorship

criteria”; “cover letter”; “redundant publication”; “double submission”; “author’s responsibility for data accuracy”, “principles of medical ethics in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the use of human samples”, “principles of medical ethics in the use of animal samples”; “conflict of interest”; “respect of the privacy policy”; “principles of

advertising”; “integrity in reporting clinical trial results”; “copyright”; and “review process”. In addition, the Rapamycin manufacturer impact factors, indexing level, and rating of the journals were assessed to determine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical their quality. All the accredited Iranian research scientific journals of medical sciences listed in the ranking file downloaded from the website of The Commission for Accreditation and Improvement of Iranian Medical Journals in October 2011 (n=198) were entered into the study. The available online instructions to the authors of 160 Iranian journals were reviewed. The ANOVA, χ2, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Mann-Whitney U, Kendall Correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 160 journals, 76 (47.5%) were in English and 84 (52.5%) were in Farsi. The mean±standard deviation (SD) and the maximum and minimum of the overall score of the publication ethics in the above-mentioned cases were 8.9±2.88, 14, and 0, respectively. The highest impact factor (1.199) belonged to one of the English language most journals. According to table 1, the most frequently mentioned publication ethics items were comprised of “redundant publication and double submission” (85%, 83.8%), “aim and scope” (81.9%), “principles of medical ethics in the use of human samples” (74.4%), and “review process” (74.4%), whereas “principles of advertising” (1.2%), “authorship criteria” (15%), and “integrity in reporting clinical trial results” (30.6%) accounted for the least mentioned items.

6 Evidence that insomnia can be a prodromal symptom in MDD7 sugge

6 Evidence that insomnia can be a prodromal symptom in MDD7 suggests that sleep may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Chronic insomnia can also exist months or years before an episode of depression, and shares consistent clinical features, course, and response to treatment, as insomnia during M.DD. Thus, a recent National Institutes of Health conference suggested that “comorbid” insomnia may be a more appropriate term than “secondary.”8 selleck screening library depression is also overrepresented in individuals with sleep disorders.9 As many as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 24% to 58% of individuals with sleep disordered breathing (eg, obstructive

sleep apnea) meet the criteria for depression.10-12 One general population survey of 18 980 adults reported that 0.8% of the sample had both sleep disordered breathing and MDD.13 As many as 18% of individuals diagnosed with M’DD also had sleep disordered breathing, and 17.6% of individuals with sleep disordered breathing were diagnosed with MDD. Patients with narcolepsy, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, similarly have elevated rates of depression; as many as 28% to 57%

have elevated depression symptoms,14,15 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and in one sample, 20% met current or past criteria for depression.16 As many as three quarters of individuals with delayed sleep phase syndrome, a circadian rhythm disorder that, leads to secondary insomnia and negatively impacts daytime functioning, have a past

or current history of depression,17 and such individuals report, poorer sleep quality and more depression.18 Restless legs syndrome also has an increased association with depression19; as many as 53% of clinic patients with restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movements Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have elevated depression ratings.14,20 Insomnia is a risk factor for developing depression A number of longitudinal studies support the notion that insomnia is a risk factor for developing both first-onset and recurrent MDD. In the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment, Area study sample (n=7954), individuals with persistent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical insomnia (present at both baseline and 1-year follow-up) were much more likely to develop a new depressive episode at follow-up compared with individuals whose insomnia resolved by follow-up (odds ratio (OR)=39.8,95% confidence interval (CI)=19.8-80.0 vs OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.5-5.3).21 Subsequent analyses22 revealed mafosfamide that of all the symptoms of depression, sleep problems were the most, prevalent, (13.6%), and those with sleep problems had the highest, relative odds (7.6 times) of developing a new-onset major depressive episode during the next year compared with those without sleep problems. Sleep problems also identified 47% of individuals who develop depression in the following year, more than any other depression symptom. Thus, us, sleep problems had the strongest predictive value of who would develop MDD.

Thus, tacrine is not a convenient drug to prescribe or take, rega

Thus, tacrine is not a convenient drug to prescribe or take, regardless of its efficacy. Also, the variations in the clinical trial designs made it difficult to fully explore the prevalence of other side effects. Donepezil The most common gastrointestinal side effects of donepezil include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia. Additionally, some patients developed muscle cramps, headache, dizziness, syncope, or flushing. Hematological side effects include anemia, thrombocytopenia and eosinophilia. Cardiac effects included bradyarrhythmia, and syncope. CNS effects included headache, dizziness, insomnia, weakness, drowsiness, fatigue, and agitation. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Weight loss occurred

at twice the rate of placebo in the nursing home study, but was not reported in the other trials. Cholinergically-related adverse effects show a dose response. Adverse effects led to withdrawal from the 24week study in 16% of patients in the 10-mg group, 6% of patients in the 5-mg group, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 5% in the placebo group.16 Adverse effects occurred at. a. higher Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rate when the titration from 5 mg to 10 mg was made in 1 week compared with 6 weeks. Metrifonate As evidenced by the proportion of patients completing trials (Table II) metrifonate was generally well tolerated over periods of 6 months or less; the tolerability over longer periods is not known. Metrifonate is similarly or better tolerated

than other ChEIs in that the vast, majority of metrifonate-treated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients enrolled in phase 3 studies complete these

clinical trials, and cholinergic adverse events were reported as frequently or less, compared with patients in other ChEJ. trials. LY411575 Significant side effects occur in no more Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical than 11 % or so of patients receiving higher doses. The most, commonly reported adverse events include diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, leg cramps, and rhinitis. Leg cramps occur in 7% to 10% of patients, and 3 to 10 times more frequently than with placebo. The most obvious reason for this is tonic stimulation of myoneural nicotinic receptors. Increased incidence of leg or muscle cramping has been reported with other ChEIs as well. The statistically significant decrease in heart rate of about 5 to 9 beats per minute (bpm) at higher doses of medication is likely due to vagotonic effects observed with some ChEIs, and might be of clinical concern. The extent Oxygenase of clinically significant bradycardia (eg, heart rate <50 bpm) was reported in only one trial, and was 7% and 32 times more frequent than with placebo. Of significant concern, however, is that approximately 20 patients out of 3000 in the metrifonate clinical studies developed “asthenia, myasthenia, and malaise,” and “4 patients with muscular weakness received respiratory support. ” (Letter from Bayer Pharmaceuticals, September 18, 1998.

33 So, what should be done, and how the graduates who will be the

33 So, what should be done, and how the graduates who will be the future health care provider of a nation should be prepared? The General Medical Council recommends that general clinical training is an integral part of basic medical education, the aim of which includes the development of competence in history taking, clinical examination, interpretation and selection of diagnostic tests, as well as diagnosis and decision making skills.31 The council also requires that doctors to be honest and

trustworthy, treat patients politely and considerately; listen to them, respect their dignity, privacy, and rights to be involved in clinical decision making process, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical respect their spouses, and respect and protect confidential information. These are the core values

of clinical medicine.33 To overcome the problems that are encountered in bedside teaching one just need a sufficiently prepared careful planning. The planning should include the identification of the followings. 1) a description of the learner whether he (she) is a first or a fifth year student, a senior house officer in psychiatry or else, 2) a description of the behavior that the learner should Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical demonstrate such as the ability to inform the patient, ability to examine or elicit, 3) a description of the condition in which the learner will demonstrate the learning such as the context for a follow up patient, a palliative setting, office setting, etc, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 4) a description of the extent to which the learner can function in a responsive and honest manner.34

The implementation of an effective bedside teaching needs careful planning and coordination.35 Teachers and educational managers should be motivated and trained,34,36,37 to adopt the Vadimezan research buy changing needs. The change in medical education is currently a worldwide phenomenon,38 and the changing the needs of teaching at the bedside must be adopted to prepare doctors Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical who are able to fulfill the needs of the community. Below is a selection of some models that might help us to think about and structure bedside teaching. Three Domain-Model of Best Bedside Teaching Practices Janicik and Fletcher (2003),2 suggested a new three domains “Model of Best Bedside Teaching Practices,” which emphasizes on (1) attending to patient comfort, (2) focused teaching, and (3) group dynamics. second Patients’ comfort can be achieved through established rules of conduct including asking the patient ahead of time, introducing all, providing a brief overview, avoiding technical language, teaching with data about the patient and providing a genuine encouraging closure. Focused teaching session should be relevant to an individual patient’s and learner’s needs. To make the teaching-focused, we have to diagnose the patient, diagnose the learner, target the teaching and provide constructive feedback privately.

6 h) After finding a suitable maintenance dose, the clock time o

6 h). After finding a suitable maintenance dose, the clock time of administration can then be adjusted if the patient still complains of symptoms of ASPS or DSPS. When shifting

the administration time earlier, advancing it no more than 30 min every 2 weeks should be sufficiently conservative, so that the entrainment point will not be crossed. Delaying a person with symptoms of ASPS need not be done incrementally. However, in either case shifting the clock time should be stopped when sleep symptoms abate. These patients should probably remain on melatonin treatment for the rest of their lives. Some minor shifts in clock time of administration may Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be required. If not taken daily, escape from steady-state entrainment at the normal phase will likely occur. However, after the pacemaker drifts through a complete cycle, the melatonin dose should

again capture the pacemaker at the optimal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical phase. Although long-term studies of melatonin need to be done, it is likely that doses of 0.5 mg or less (which result in levels within the same order of magnitude as those produced by the pineal) should be safe. To date, no serious, irreversible side effects have been unequivocally linked to melatonin even at doses greater than 0.5 mg. Nevertheless, we recommend that continuous melatonin treatment be monitored by a physician or other responsible caregiver, who is familiar with the most recent scientific and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical medical literature. Other circadian phase disorders Research in SAD patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and blind people has helped us understand how to treat circadian phase disorders and syndromes in the general sighted population. These disorders include ASPS and DSPS, jet lag, and shift work maladaptation. All of these disorders and syndromes are to a greater or lesser extent related to the circadian timing system and can be phase typed, according to whether they are phase see more Delayed or phase advanced (Table I). Table I Phase typing for circadian rhythm disorders. Treatment of these disorders is based on the light and melatonin PRCs.44 To provide a corrective phase advance,

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical bright light should be scheduled immediately upon awakening in the morning and melatonin should be taken in the afternoon/evening. To provide a corrective phase delay, bright light should be scheduled in the evening and melatonin should be taken in the morning. Delayed sleep phase syndrome Melatonin and light are both Megestrol Acetate effective in treating DSPS.102,103 The first published report of treating DSPS with light was in 1983.33 This topic is reviewed elsewhere.104 Most people with DSPS are younger and prefer to sleep late in the morning, having difficulty falling asleep until as late as 4.00 am. These individuals can be treated by scheduling their waketimes to occur gradually earlier (perhaps 15 min every other day) until the desired waketime is reached. Going outdoors immediately upon awakening for about 30 min will help advance the circadian rhythm of sleep propensity, as will taking 0.

84 Gene-environment interaction studies using identified suscepti

84 Gene-environment interaction studies using identified susceptibility genes rather than unmeasured latent genetic factors can provide more secure estimates.84 Based on results from quantitative genetic studies showing gene-environment interaction for antisocial behavior, Caspi et al123 studied the association between childhood maltreatment, and a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene on antisocial behavior

assessed through a range of categorical and dimensional measures using questionnaire and interview data plus official records. The results showed no main effect of the gene, a main effect for maltreatment and a substantial and significant interaction between the gene and adversity.

The maltreated children whose genotype conferred low levels of MAOA expression more often developed Galunisertib conduct disorder and antisocial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical personality than children with a high activity MAOA genotype. Foley et al124 replicated this finding and extended the initial analysis by showing that the gene-environment interaction could not be accounted for by gene-environment correlation. Other studies have failed to replicate the gene-environment interaction effect (eg, ref 125). In a recent meta-analysis, however, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the original finding was replicated. In addition the findings was extended to include childhood (closer in time to the maltreatment), and the possibility of a spurious finding was ruled out by accounting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for gene-environment correlation.126 The interaction between MAOA and childhood maltreatment in the etiology of antisocial PD appear to be one of the few

replicated findings in the molecular genetics of PDs. Future directions Information from genetic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical epidemiologic studies can contribute to improvement in the validity of diagnoses of mental disorders, and thereby a more empirically based classification system.49,56,127 Several lines of evidence, including multivariate twin studies, have shown that common axis I disorders can be divided into two main groups (internalizing and externalizing) based on shared etiological factors.49,68 Currently an alternative classification system are being considered for DSM-V based on the hypothesis that, in addition to phenotypic similarity, spectra or clusters of disorder can be identified based TCL on shared liability or risk factors.56 Such clusters transcend the axis I-axis II division. Multivariate twin studies, including a comprehensive number of axis I and axis II disorders, could provide new important insights relevant to this proposal and further clarify the etiology of mental disorders by identifying genetic and environmental risk factors shared in common between groups of disorders.

It has been emphasized that antidepressants are not contraindicat

It has been emphasized that antidepressants are not contraindicated during pregnancy, although use of paroxetine is not preferable [Stewart, 2011; Koren and Nordeng, 2012]. To avoid feelings of guilt women, have to make their own decision to (dis)continue the antidepressant, together with their partner. In consultation with the physician, Alisertib concentration Patients can consider the possibilities of discontinuing or decreasing the dose in late pregnancy. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical This to mitigate the risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn infant (PPHN) or withdrawal syndrome [Koren and Nordeng, 2012]. Women and their newborns included in the POP protocol were observed for at least

the first 48 hours after birth. Study population Women ≥18 years were included during the first trimester of pregnancy after signing informed consent if it was to be expected that

antidepressant medication would be used throughout all trimesters. Patients who were incapable of following the study protocol according to the attending Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical specialist from the POP protocol were excluded. Adherence assessment To assess a daily practice method compared to MEMS, we used three different adherence methods: pill count, Beliefs about Medicine questionnaire (BMQ) and blood level monitoring. Medication Event Monitoring System The bottles were filled with the antidepressants Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with a MEMS 6 TrackCap 38 mm (Aardex Group Ltd, Switzerland) for 4 periods of 3 months. The MEMS bottles together with a diary to record deviations in intake of their antidepressant were supplied after inclusion. Patients were instructed to open the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical MEMS bottle only when they intended to take their medication. The patients

were made aware of the MEMS cap function prior to the start of the study. After the first supply, the patient was responsible during the rest of the study period for collecting the antidepressant at the hospital pharmacy. Primary investigators were not involved in dispensing study medication to avoid triggers for adherence. MEMS packages were analysed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical at the end of the study period with Powerview® (Aardex Group Ltd, Switzerland). Additional events, such as opening for refill or by accident, were removed from the MEMS data prior to analysis, according to dispensing protocols and notes from diaries. As an indicator to measure the adherence with MEMS we used dose-time, defined as the percentage of doses taken on schedule within 25% of the expected time interval (e.g. one-daily these dose should be taken 24 ± 6 hours apart) [Claxton et al. 2001]. The cut-off point for MEMS for good adherence was ≥80% [Brook et al. 2006]. Pill count Pill count was calculated at the end of the study program and the adherence was measured as: % Pill count = (number of prescribed pills − number of pills left in the bottle)/(number of days between dispensing date and return date of pill bottle) × 100. The cut-off point for good adherence was ≥90% [van Onzenoort et al. 2011].

2 1 7 Examples of Successful Applications Confined impinging je

2.1.7. Examples of Successful Applications Confined impinging jet systems have been used in our laboratory to consistently produce submicron API suspensions via a continuous process that involves crystallization via the solvent/antisolvent technique to generate GF109203X in vivo supersaturation conditions. Microfliudics Reaction Technology (MRT) was selected for this bottom-up processing since it is based on novel multiple stream inlet capabilities coupled with the impinging jet concept [11–14, 26]. It is designed to produce jet velocities and energy dissipation orders of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical magnitude higher than those of conventional impinging

jet reactors. The technology provides precise control of the feed rates, and the subsequent location and intensity of mixing of the reactants. It may provide significant technical and economical advantages due to its process intensification character that minimizes energy requirements, and the proven scalability of the reactor. In our first proof of concept studies performed, nanosuspensions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of several APIs were produced varying the key parameters of the technology [14]. Five different model APIs were used for testing and were selected to belong to different chemical families that exhibit different pharmacological activities. There were two antibiotics (azithromycin and API-2), an antihistamine (loratadine), an anticonvulsant

(oxycarbazepine) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIS, API-1). The particle size depended Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on the supersaturation ratio and energy dissipation expressed as process pressure. The nanosuspensions were stable with narrow particle size distributions and median particle sizes in the range of 50–760nm. This “bottom up” process was compared to a

“top down” process in which drug nanosuspensions were created as a result of particle size reduction. It was found that the “bottom up” process was substantially more efficient and resulted in smaller particles. This first study did not attempt to identify crystalline structure and therefore no polymorph Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical selectivity capabilities were evaluated. To accomplish this, two additional, more in depth studies were conducted on single APIs: Carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant, Thalidomide and Norfloxacin (NFN), an antibacterial agent. The details of the experimental protocols and results are reported in separate papers, CBZ [12] and NFN [11]. A few brief comments are given here to help validate the benefits of bottom up processing with respect to the stated objectives of creating carefully engineered particles with “tunable” characteristics. The NFN nanosuspensions had narrow particle size distributions and median particle sizes in the range of 170–350nm depending on the supersaturation ratio and energy dissipation expressed as process pressure. However, the particle size was found to be insensitive to the presence of the surfactant used.