(C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd “
“It was long thought th

(C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“It was long thought that the colour of bird feathers does not change after plumage moult. However, there is increasing evidence that the colour of feathers may change due to abrasion, photochemical change and staining, either accidental or deliberate. The coloration of plumage due to deliberate staining, i.e. with cosmetic purposes, may help individuals to communicate their quality to conspecifics.

The presence of carotenoids in preen oils has been previously only suggested, and here we confirm for the first time its presence in such oils. Moreover, the carotenoids in the uropygial secretions were the same specific pigments found in feathers. We show not only that the colour of feathers of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus buy 4-Hydroxytamoxifen roseus became more colourful due to the application of carotenoids Nutlin-3 Apoptosis inhibitor from uropygial secretions over the plumage but also that the feathers became more colourful with the quantity of pigments applied over them,

thus providing evidence of cosmetic coloration. Flamingos used uropygial secretions as cosmetic much more frequently during periods when they were displaying in groups than during the rest of the year, suggesting that the primary function of cosmetic coloration is mate choice. Individuals with more colourful plumage initiated nesting earlier. There was a correlation between plumage coloration before and after removal of uropygial secretions from feathers’ surfaces, suggesting that the use of these pigmented secretions https://www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-770.html may function as a signal amplifier by increasing the perceptibility of plumage colour, and hence of individual quality. As the cosmetic coloration strengthens signal intensity by reinforcing base-plumage colour, its use may help to the understanding of selection for signal efficacy by making interindividual differences more apparent.”
“Objectives: Examine the longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in older adults and its influence on mental

health quality of life (MHQoL). Design: Evaluation performed at baseline, and 3 and 6 months postrandomization as part of a longitudinal trial. Participants and settings: A total of 1,185 participants, with a mean (+/-SD) age of 73.53 (+/-5.98) years, at seven primary care sites (including five Veterans Affairs clinics), were divided into four groups, namely, no trauma (n = 661), trauma only (n = 319), partial PTSD (n = 114), and PTSD (n = 81), based on reports of trauma and associated PTSD symptoms. Measurements: The prevalence of comorbid depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders, assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, criteria and changes in MHQoL, as assessed by the Short Form-36 mental component score. Results: At baseline, the PTSD group had higher frequencies of comorbid depression and anxiety disorders and worse MHQoL than the other groups.

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