Hence, the defects in immunological development in the Ts65Dn mic

Hence, the defects in immunological development in the Ts65Dn mice seem to be limited to immature haematopoietic progenitors, particularly T-lineage precursors, although the mechanisms and potential biochemical effects in DS remain to be tested. Hence, these data demonstrate significant defects in immature and mature T-lymphocyte populations of Ts65Dn mice, with changes in

both the composition and function of the cells of the thymus and spleen. The data suggest that decreased IL-7Rα expression may underlie this dysfunction, causing decreased proliferation and function. Taken together with the haematopoietic stem and progenitor defects in previous studies,[6] the data indicate an overall dysfunction of adaptive

immune system development in Ts65Dn mice. The authors wish to thank Ian M. Kaplan for helpful discussions and Regina Harley for Dinaciclib order CB-839 chemical structure expert assistance in cell sorting. This work was supported by funding from the US Public Health Service (AI070823) (MSW) and the LeJeune Foundation (PJY). The authors declare that they have no competing interests. “
“Highly protective intestinal cell membrane antigens have been prepared from Haemonchus contortus, an important blood feeding nematode which parasitizes sheep and goats. One such antigen, H-gal-GP, is a glycoprotein complex containing predominantly digestive proteases. This study showed that H-gal-GP readily digested ovine haemoglobin and albumin, the two most abundant proteins in the parasite’s blood meal. It was found that adding protective antibodies from H-gal-GP immunized sheep to the H-gal-GP catalysed haemoglobin digestion reaction, reduced the rate by 70–90% at pH 5·0. This reduction was only 30% when nonprotective IgG from sheep immunized with denatured H-gal-GP was added and IgG from worm-free sheep had no effect. These

results support the theory that the mechanism of protection in sheep vaccinated with H-gal-GP is by specific antibodies impairing the parasites ability to digest its blood meal. The blood feeding parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus causes severe anaemia, loss of condition Adenosine triphosphate and, in the worst cases, death in small ruminants (1). Currently, it is controlled by pasture management and anthelmintic drugs. However, the increasing prevalence of worm strains resistant to the current drugs (2,3) demands alternative approaches for control, one of which could be by vaccination. To meet this goal, Smith et al. (4) have pursued the hidden antigen approach. Hidden antigens are ones to which the host does not normally mount an immune response over the course of natural infection, but which are accessible to antibodies ingested by the parasite (5). Their work has led to the isolation of a highly protective antigen called Haemonchus galactose-containing glycoprotein complex (H-gal-GP) from detergent extracts of Haemonchus intestinal cell membranes (6).

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