Journal of Human Hypertension ( 2009) 23, 817-825; doi:10.1038/jhh.2009.28; published online 9 April 2009″
“P>Al3+-resistant cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) release malate through the Al3+-activated anion transport protein Triticum aestivum aluminum-activated malate transporter 1 (TaALMT1). Expression of TaALMT1 in Xenopus oocytes
and tobacco suspension cells enhances the basal transport activity (inward and outward currents present in the absence of external Al3+), and generates the Prexasertib clinical trial same Al3+-activated currents (reflecting the Al3+-dependent transport function) as observed in wheat cells. We investigated the amino acid residues involved in this Al3+-dependent transport activity by generating a series of mutations to the TaALMT1 protein. We targeted the acidic residues on the hydrophilic C-terminal domain of TaALMT1 and changed them to uncharged residues by site-directed mutagenesis. These mutant proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and their transport activity was measured before and after Al3+ addition. Three mutations (E274Q, D275N and E284Q) abolished the Al3+-activated transport activity without affecting the basal transport activity. Truncation of
the hydrophilic C-terminal domain abolished both basal and Al3+-activated transport activities. Al3+-dependent transport activity was recovered by fusing the N-terminal region of TaALMT1 with the C-terminal region of AtALMT1, a homolog from Arabidopsis. These findings demonstrate that the extracellular C-terminal domain is required for both basal and Al3+-dependent TaALMT1 activity. Furthermore, we identified three acidic amino acids within this domain that are specifically XR9576 required for the activation of transport function by external Al3+.”
“Seven new dammarane-type triterpenoids, including two 20(S)-hydroxy-25-methoxy-dammar-23-enes (1 and 2), two 20(S),24(R)-epoxydammaranes (3 and 4), a cabralealactone (5), and two 20(S),25-epoxydammaranes (6 and 7), together with seven known triterpenes (8-14), were isolated from the floral spikes of Betula platyphylla var. japonica. The structures for all compounds were elucidated by the analyses of extensive spectroscopic data, as well as chemical examinations.”
induces oxidative stress in salt-sensitive (SS) animals and man. It is not known whether in SS subjects the ATR inhibitor low-sodium dietary approaches to stop hypertension (LS-DASH) reduces oxidative stress more than DASH, which is high in antioxidants. To assess the effects of DASH and LS-DASH on oxidative stress, 19 volunteers were studied after 3 weeks of a standardized usual low fruits and vegetables diet (ULFV), followed by 3 weeks on DASH (both diets similar to 120 mmol Na(+) per day), then 3 weeks on LS-DASH (60 mmol Na(+) per day). SS was defined as systolic blood pressure >= 5 mm Hg lower on LS-DASH than DASH. In SS subjects (N = 9), systolic blood pressure was lower on LS-DASH (111.0 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) than DASH (118.0 +/- 2.2, P<0.01) and ULFV (122.3 +/- 2.